Our Courses

Courses’ Alignment to Virginia Standards of Learning

All courses at ChallengeU correlate directly to Virginia Standards of Learning. Courses are developed by Virginia-licensed educators with successful pass rates, particularly with at-risk populations. We focus on guided and engaging lessons to hold students’ interest so that they finish goals and pass their EOC SOLs. Click on the links below to see how each course corresponds to Virginia Standards.

* Boxed red content indicates directly tested VA SOL content.

* Boxed blue content indicates mandated but untested VA SOL content.

English 11

VA SOL TESTED STRAND — GRADE 11 READING
CHALLENGEU LESSONS
red
11.3 The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.This unit begins by teaching literary terminology and word decoding skills before moving to specific techniques for reading and understanding SOL test questions. Students then study the differences between prose and poetry before practicing interpretation with examples of increasing difficulty, including paired prose and poetry.lred
a) Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to understand complex words.Vocabulary in Context (Reading Comp)
b) Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.Vocabulary in Context, Word Connotation/Denotation (Reading Comp)
c) Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.Word Connotation/Denotation, Implication and Inference (Reading Comp)
d) Explain the meaning of common idioms.Implication and Inference (Reading Comp.)
e) Explain the meaning of literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.Figurative Language — 3 lessons (Reading Comp)
f) Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.Understanding Direction Verbs; Poetry and Nonfiction Passage Analyses (11 exercises in Reading Comp)
11.4 The student will read, comprehend, and analyze relationships among American literature, history, and culture.lred
a) Describe contributions of different cultures to the development of American literature.Long Poem and Paired Poems Analyses; Paired Prose Analysis
b) Compare and contrast the development of American literature in its historical context.Long Poem and Paired Poems Analyses; Paired Prose Analysis
c) Analyze American literature, as it reflects traditional and contemporary themes, motifs, universal characters, and genres.Reading Poetry; Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Poems Analyses;Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Prose Analysis of Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Passages
d) Interpret the social or cultural function of American literature.Long and Paired Poems Analyses; Short Passage 2 and Paired Passages,
e) Analyze how context and language structures convey an author’s intent and viewpoint.Reading Poetry; Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Analyses; Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Prose Analysis of Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Passages
f) Critique how authors use key literary elements to contribute to meaning including character development, theme, conflict, and archetypes within and across texts .Reading Poetry; Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Poems Analyses;Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Prose Analysis of Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Passages
g) Interpret how the sound and imagery of poetry support the subject, mood, and theme, and appeal to the reader’s senses.Reading Poetry; Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Poems Analyses
h) Evaluate how specific word choices, syntax, tone, and voice support the author’s purpose.Reading Poetry; Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Poems Analyses; Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Prose Passages
i) Analyze the use of dramatic conventions in American literature.Selection TBD
j)Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).Reading Poetry; Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Poems Analyses;Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Prose Analysis of Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Passages
k) Compare/contrast literary and informational nonfiction texts.Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Short Nonfiction 1, Medium Nonfiction 1, Long Nonfiction 2
11.5 The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts including employment documents and technical writing.Because skills are not taught in isolation, some lessons will overlap with other SOL strands, as noted in parentheses.lred
a) Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Short Passage 1, Medium Passage 1, and Long Passage 2 Analyses
b)Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.WorkKeys Workplace Documents lessons (4) and practices (8)
c) Analyze technical writing for clarity.WorkKeys Workplace Documents lessons (4) and practices (8)
d) Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Short Passage 1, Medium Passage 1, and Long Passage 2 Analyses
e) Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Short Passage 1, Medium Passage 1, and Long Passage 2 Analyses
f) Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.Paired Nonfiction Passages
g) Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.Planning the Essay, Writing the Conclusion (Persuasive Essay)
h) Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.Figurative Language — Three Lessons
i) Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Short Passage 1, Medium Passage 1, and Long Passage 2 Analyses
VA SOL TESTED STRAND — GRADE 11 Writing
CHALLENGEU LESSONS
red
11.6 The student will write in a variety of forms, to include persuasive/argumentative, reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation.The focus of the composition unit is to guide the student step-by-step in writing a coherent and effective persuasive essay as required on the SOL test.lred
a) Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.Planning the Essay, Writing the Introduction (2 lessons), Body Paragraphs (2 lessons), Writing the Conclusion (2 lessons), Writing an Essay for an SOL Prompt
b) Produce arguments in writing developing a thesis that demonstrates knowledgeable judgments, addresses counterclaims, and provides effective conclusions.Reading and Understanding a Prompt, Formulating a Thesis, Writing a Thesis
c) Organize claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.Planning the Essay, Writing the Introduction (2 lessons), Body Paragraphs (2 lessons), Writing the Conclusion (2 lessons), Writing an Essay for an SOL Prompt
d) Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.Language in Formal Essays
e) Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to create a cohesive argument.Language in Formal Essays
f) Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding narratives to produce effective essays.Body Paragraphs (2 lessons)
g) Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy and depth of information.Writing an Essay for an SOL Prompt
h) Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.Fragments (4 lessons); Run-on and Comma Splice Sentences (4 lessons ); Compound Sentences; Commas (7 lessons); Subject-Verb Agreement (4 lessons); Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement; Pronoun Usage (2 lessons); Apostrophes (3 lessons); and Easily Confused Words (35 lessons).
11.7 The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.The separate Writing Drills Unit concentrates on reviewing grammar and mechanics, sentence structure, paragraphing, and appropriate language.lred
a) Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing,Fragments; Run-on Comma Splice Sentences; Compound Sentences (Writing Drills)
b) Use verbals and verbal phrases correctly to achieve sentence conciseness and varietySentence Variety and Conciseness
c) Distinguish between active and passive voice.Active and Passive Voice
VA SOL STRAND — GRADE 11 MULTIMODAL COMMUNICATION AND LITERACY
CHALLENGEU LESSONS
blue
11.1 The student will make planned informative and persuasive multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.lblue
a) Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.Career Research, Video Responses
b) Credit information sources.Career Research
c) Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.Discussion Platform TBD
d) Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.Discussion Platform TBD
e) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.Discussion Platform TBD
f) Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.Discussion Platform TBD
g) Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.Video responses
h) Use vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.Language in Formal Essays (Composition Unit) teaches adapting to the topic, audience, and purpose.)
i) Evaluate effectiveness of multimodal presentations.Video responses
11.2 The student will examine how values and points of view are included or excluded and how media influences beliefs and behaviors.lblue
a) Describe possible cause and effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends.Evaluating Online Sources, Finding the Right Online Source
b) Create media messages with a specific point of view.Google Slide Presentation, Video Responses
c) Evaluate media sources for relationships between intent and content.Evaluating Online Sources, Finding the Right Online Source
d) Analyze the impact of selected media formats on meaning.Evaluating Online Sources, Finding the Right Online Source
e) Determine the author’s purpose and intended effect on the audience for media messages.Evaluating Online Sources, Finding the Right Online Source
f) Manage, analyze, and synthesize multiple streams of simultaneous information.Jobs Requiring a HS Diploma, Choosing a Job, Job Training, Paying the Bills, Employment Information, Finding the Right School, Earning Potential, Struggle to Success, and Why Finish High School?
g) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.Evaluating Online Sources, Finding the Right Online Source
VA SOL STRAND — GRADE 11 RESEARCH
CHALLENGEU LESSONS
blue
11.8 The student will analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and organize information from a variety of credible resources to produce a research product.lblue
a) Critically evaluate quality, accuracy, and validity of information.Jobs Requiring a HS Diploma, Choosing a Job, Job Training, Paying the Bills, Employment Information, Finding the Right School, Earning Potential, Struggle to Success, and Why Finish High School?
b) Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view or bias.Jobs Requiring a HS Diploma, Choosing a Job, Job Training, Paying the Bills, Employment Information, Finding the Right School, Earning Potential, Struggle to Success, and Why Finish High School?
c) Synthesize relevant information from primary and secondary sources and present it in a logical sequence.Career Research
d) Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).Career Research
e) Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.Avoiding Plagiarism
f) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.Evaluating Online Sources, Finding the Right Online Source
WRITING
SKILLSDESCRIPTIONTYPESOLS TAUGHTred
ADAPTIVE LEARNING SKILLS UNITBecause we recognize that many students have deficiencies in basic skills in grammar, mechanics, and usage, this preliminary unit provides an adaptive learning opportunity for strengthening those skills. Students will be directed to these topics when they show specific weaknesses in their writing. Exercises increase in difficulty from very basic to grade-level appropriate, the goal being for the student to write strong, clear, grammatically and mechanically correct sentences when they compose a persuasive essay.At no time do we stress terminology with the students. Terminology is mentioned in the lessons, but the focus is on practice. We want them to recognize an incomplete thought, an incorrect verb, or a wrong pronoun choice.

Practice always trumps terminology.
In this unit we reach back to the SOLs for earlier grades for those students who need intense remediation. The topics were chosen based on teacher experience preparing students for the EOC Writing SOL Test.

The goal is for students to meet standard 11.6.h (editing and revising).
lred
Sentence Structure (Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma-splices)This section focuses on building understanding of clear and complete sentences.Video and Text Lessons (8 of each)8.7.a,c
9.7.b,c
Sentence Structure (Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma-splices)Students progress through practices based on their skill level. There is a bank of 350 exercises in which they identify whether or not a sentence is complete and expresses one clear thought, followed by a bank of 350 paragraphs in which the students must highlight the incomplete or incorrect sentence. Students are taught to read the paragraph backwards as an effective proofreading technique.Sentence Drills (700)
Quizzes (3 10-question)
Tests ( 2 50-question)
8.7.a,c
9.7.b,c
Comma Usage (Sentence Combining)Topics taught in this section include using commas with coordinating conjunctions, using commas with introductory clauses and phrases, using commas with appositives, and deciding between the necessity of commas with essential and nonessential clauses.Video and Text Lessons (5 of each)9.7.b
10.7.b
Comma Usage (Sentence Combining)The exercises require students to understand phrase and clause elements so that they can decide when a comma is necessary. These lessons reinforce the concepts studied in the sentence completeness exercises and teach students to correctly combine simple sentences into more complex ones.Sentence Drills (250)
Quizzes (3 – 10 question)
Tests ( 2 – 50 question)
9.7.b
10.7.b
Comma Usage (Items in a Series, Commas for Attribution)Students learn when commas are necessary in a series of nouns, adjectives, phrases, and clauses, as well as how to use commas with quotations, a skill necessary for using quotations when citing sources in the composition and research units.Video and Text Lessons (2 of each)8.7.f
Comma Usage (Items in a Series, Commas for Attribution)The exercises require students to choose correct comma placement when using quotations, as well as to understand what constitutes a series.Series drills (40)
Attribution drills (20)
Tests covering all comma usage ( 2 – 50 question)
8.7.f
Apostrophe Usage (Possessive Singular)The lesson teaches correct placement of an apostrophe with a singular noun or pronoun, including those singular nouns that end in s.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)5.8.a
Apostrophe Usage (Possessive Singular)Students choose the correct apostrophe placement.Drills (20)5.8.a
Apostrophe Usage (Possessive Plural)The lesson teaches correct placement of an apostrophe with a plural noun or pronoun, with special emphasis on collective nouns.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)5.8.a
Apostrophe Usage (Possessive Plural)Students choose the correct apostrophe placement.Drills (20)
Quiz (20 items covering the use of apostrophes with singular and plural nouns
5.8.a
Apostrophe Usage (Contractions)While being cautioned that contractions should be avoided in formal writing, students learn to use an apostrophe to replace the letters omitted when making a contraction. The lesson teaches both contractions with a noun/pronoun with a helping verb and contractions involving not and have.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)3.9.h
Apostrophe Usage (Contractions)Students choose the correct use of an apostrophe to formulate a contraction.Exercises (20)
Quiz (1 — 50 questions covering all uses of the apostrophe)
3.9.h
AGREEMENTBecause students are surrounded by examples of incorrect agreement (even and, perhaps, particularly in the media), the next lessons concentrate on correcting those problems.lred
Subject-Verb AgreementStudents learn to isolate the subject of a sentence (ignoring prepositional phrases and other intervening words) before deciding on a verb that agrees in number, remembering that a noun forms its plural by adding an s, while a verb forms its plural by dropping the s. Special emphasis is placed on compound and collective subjects.Video and Text Lessons (2 of each)7.8.c
Subject-Verb AgreementUsing the techniques taught in the lesson, students isolate the subject(s) and choose the appropriate verb.Sentence drills (80 of increasing difficulty)7.8.c
Subject-Verb Agreement (to be)This lesson gives special emphasis to the irregular verb “to be” and its forms.Video and Text Lessons (1 of each)7.8.c
Subject-Verb Agreement (to be)Using the techniques taught in the lesson, students isolate the subject(s) and choose the appropriate form of “to be.”Sentence drills (20)7.8.c
Subject-Verb Agreement (to have)This lesson gives special emphasis to problems with the verb “to have” and its forms.Video and Text Lessons (1 of each)7.8.c
Subject-Verb Agreement (to have)Using the techniques taught in the lesson, students isolate the subject(s) and choose the appropriate form of “to have.”Sentence drills (20)7.8.c
Pronoun-Antecedent AgreementBuilding on the idea of agreement in number, this lesson adds the influence of gender and shows the student how to determine the correct pronoun to replace its antecedent.Video and Text Lessons (1 of each)8.7.b
Pronoun-Antecedent AgreementStudents isolate the antecedent of a pronoun and choose the pronoun that agrees in gender and number.Sentence drills (30)8.7.b
Reflexive PronounsThis lesson aims to dispel the idea of there being any “hisself” or “theirselfs” options by teaching students the correct forms of reflexive pronouns and their antecedents, as well as showing them the appropriate times to use a reflexive (a subject not being one of those times).Video and Text Lessons (1 of each)8.7.b
Reflexive PronounsStudents isolate antecedents to choose the correct reflexive form.Sentence drills (20)8.7.b
Subject PronounsThis lesson aims to correct the ubiquitous incorrect use of objective pronouns in place of nominative pronouns by demonstrating the simple technique of reading compound subjects individually with the corresponding verb or preposition.Video and Text Lessons (1 of each)8.7.b
Subject PronounsStudents read sample sentences to determine if the nominative or objective pronoun should be used.Sentence drills (20)8.7.b
EASILY CONFUSED WORDSStudents frequently use words like to/too/too and their/there/they’re incorrectly. If a pattern develops in their writing, they will be directed to the appropriate lesson to learn the differences and correct usage.lred
Its/It’sThis pair serves as an example of how 35 pairs or trios of frequently confused words are studied. Each lesson explains the difference with example sentences and explanations.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)8.8.g
Its/It’sStudents decipher sentences to determine the correct option.Sentence drills (from 20 to 60, depending on how frequently misused the pair/trio is and how much remediation is needed)8.8.g
Easily Confused WordsTo assess learning, students may take quizzes on groups of pairs/trios, which require them to choose the correct form as appropriate for the sentence.Quizzes (11 with 10 questions each))8.8.g
INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPOSITION UNITThe aim of the composition unit is to take the studentsthrough the step-by-step process of composing a strong persuasive essay, as they will be required to do on the SOL test.

Within the exercises, students will use repeating prompts so that they will essentially be composing various essays throughout the learning process.
Lesson

For illustration, one prompt is used throughout the lessons:

"Children who are hungry can't concentrate on learning." While some people think that schools should provide meals for students in need, others believe that parents should be responsible for seeing that their children are properly fed.

Take a position on this issue. Support your position with explanations and examples.
lred
COMPOSITION REMINDERSThe unit begins with review instruction on language, voice, and sentence variety.lred
Language in Formal EssaysStudents are instructed to use formal language (not slang) and to remember their audience.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.6.d,e
Language in Formal EssaysStudents choose the best-worded sentences, considering the audience, with constructive feedback for incorrect responses.Exercises (10)11.6.d,e
Sentence Variety in ParagraphsStudents learn how to use verbals to make sentences more concise and varied.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.7.a,b
Sentence Variety in ParagraphsStudents use verbals to write more forceful and concise sentences.Exercises (10)11.7.a,b
Active and Passive VoiceStudents learn the difference between active and passive voice.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.7.c
Active and Passive VoiceStudents identify active and passive voice in sample sentences.Exercises (10)11.7.c
RESPONDING TO A PROMPTThe lessons now move to how to interpret and answer a prompt to begin the essay process.lred
How to Read and Understand a PromptStudents are taught to read carefully and zero in on exactly what the prompt asks of them, focusing on key words and instructions.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.6.a,c
How to Read and Understand a PromptGiven the opening of a prompt, students identify what they are being asked to consider.Exercises (10)11.6.a,b,c
Formulating a Thesis/PositionStudents learn to brainstorm in order to decide a position that they will word strongly, taking a position.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)11.6.a,b,c
Formulating a Thesis/PositionGiven a prompt, students choose the strongest thesis/position statement in response.Exercises (10)11.6.a,b,c
Writing the Thesis/PositionStudents are reminded of the process: Read the prompt, think about it, brainstorm ideas, write down those ideas, and then make a decision.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)11.6.a,b,c
Writing the Thesis/PositionGiven a prompt, students go through the process to write a clear and strong thesis.Exercises (10)11.6.a,b,c
Planning the EssayHaving brainstormed to formulate their thesis/position, students now learn to decide on their three strongest arguments.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.6.a,c
Planning the EssayGiven a prompt and a thesis, students choose the argument that will NOT support the position.Exercises (10)11.6.a,c
Introductory Paragraph — Part IStudents learn options for the opening: Repeating the prompt, posing a question, or suggesting a situation.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)11.6.a,c
Introductory Paragraph — Part IGiven a prompt, students choose the most effective opening statement.Exercises (10)11.6.a,c
Introductory Paragraph — Part IIStudents learn options for bridging from the opening statement to the thesis/position: Commenting further on the situation or posing an answer to the question.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)11.6.a,c
Introductory Paragraph — Part IIGiven prompts, students compose opening paragraphs in response.Exercises (10)11.6.a,c
Body Paragraphs — Topic SentenceThe focus in this lesson is to use one of the points from the planning lesson and begin with a transitional word or phrase.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)11.6.a,c,f
Body Paragraphs — Topic SentenceGiven a thesis/position statement, students choose the best opening statement for a subsequent body paragraph. Constructive feedback is given for incorrect answers.Exercises (10)11.6.a,c,f
Body Paragraphs — Explanation and ImportanceOnce they have an opening statement, students learn that they must explain it and tie it back to the thesis. They see this process via sample body paragraphs of increasing appropriateness.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)11.6.a,c,f
Body Paragraphs — Explanation and ImportanceGiven a thesis, students read a sample body paragraph and decide what, if anything, is missing — The topic sentence with transition, the explanatory sentence, or the concluding sentence relating back to the thesis The point of the exercise is to get them to recognize the three things that must be in every body paragraph.Exercises (10)11.6.a,c,f
Writing the Conclusion Part IThis lesson concentrates on opening the conclusion with the concession/counterclaim, immediately followed by the rebuttal and the call to action.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)11.6.a,c
Writing the Conclusion Part IGiven a prompt and a sample concluding paragraph, students decide what, if anything, is missing — the counterclaim, the rebuttal, or the call to action.Exercises (10)11.6.a,c
Writing the Conclusion Part IIStudents review everything that the conclusion requires by looking at several examples.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)11.6.a,c
Writing the Conclusion Part IIUsing prompts that they have considered throughout the exercises, students compose a concluding paragraph for each.Exercises (10)11.6.a,c
Writing an Essay for an SOL PromptBefore the students write on their own, this lesson reviews all the components and stresses the fact that they know what to do! Many students are simply afraid of writing an essay, but these lessons and exercises have show them exactly how to approach a topic and write an acceptable essay in response.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.6.a,c.g
Writing and Essay for an SOL PromptGiven a prompt, students compose a persuasive essay that conforms to the standards.Exercises (10)11.6.a,c,g

READING
SKILLSDESCRIPTIONTYPESOLS TAUGHTred
INTRODUCTION TO READING COMPREHENSION UNITUsing the metaphor of a road map, students see that they will work through the unit step by step.Video lesson11.3
11.4
11.5
lred
LITERARY AND RHETORICAL TERMINOLOGYThese lessons concentrate on preparing the student to interpret prose and poetry with a strong vocabulary base.lred
Basic Literary Terms — Thesis/Theme, Organizational Structures, Purpose, Tone/Attitude, Mood/Atmosphere, Syntax, Flashback, Foreshadowing, ConflictThis lesson reviews essential literary terms, defining these and showing students how to recognize and apply them.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)11.3.e
11.5.h
Basic Literary Terms — Thesis/Theme, Organizational Structures, Purpose, Tone/Attitude, Mood/Atmosphere, Syntax, Flashback, Foreshadowing, ConflictStudents identify and apply literary terms by reading examples, receiving feedback explanation for any incorrect answers.Exercises (10)11.3.e
11.5.h
Figurative Language Part I — Imagery, Personification, SymbolismThe lesson defines the terms and shows the students how to recognize them and their effects, by providing and explaining examples.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)11.3.e
11.5.h
Figurative Language Part 1 — Imagery, Personification, SymbolismStudents identify the type of figurative language as used in a sentence. Incorrect answers receive explanatory feedback.Exercises (10)11.3.e
11.5.h
Figurative Language Part 2 — Irony, Simile, MetaphorThis lesson defines the types of irony and explains the difference between metaphor and simile.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)11.3.e
11.4.h
Figurative Language Part 2 — Irony, Simile, MetaphorReading example sentences utilizing the various figures of speech, students identify the technique used and receive explanatory feedback for any incorrect answers.Exercises (10)11.3.e
11.5.h
Figurative Language Part 3 — Alliteration, Onomatopoeia, Allusion, Understatement, OverstatementWith examples and explanations, this lesson shows students how to recognize sound devices as well as references outside the text and reasons that an author might over- or understate.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)11.3.e
11.5.h
Figurative language Part 3 — Alliteration, Onomatopoeia, Allusion, Understatement, OverstatementStudents identify the techniques as used in sample sentences and receive explanatory feedback for any incorrect answers.Exercises (10)11.3.e
11.5.h
UNDERSTANDING ESSENTIAL VOCABULARYNext, the students learn techniques for interpreting the meanings and uses of sometimes difficult words, in addition to understanding verbs commonly used in test directions and stems.lred
Vocabulary in ContextThe lesson explains how the student can use various context clues (synonyms, definitions, restatement) to decipher word meanings.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)11.3.a,b
Vocabulary in ContextStudents apply the techniques in sample test questions, receiving feedback for any incorrect answers.Exercises (10)11.3.a,b
Word Connotation/DenotationStudents learn techniques for distinguishing between the exact and implied meanings of words.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)11.3.b,c
Word Connotation/DenotationStudents apply their understanding of connotation by choosing the word that best fits the emotional tone of the sentence.Exercises (10)11.3.b,c.
Implication and InferenceThis lesson defines the terms and extends student understanding of words beyond their denotation.They are shown how a writer IMPLIES and a reader INFERS.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)11.3.b,c.d
Understanding Direction VerbsThe lesson reviews and explains the meanings of direction verbs commonly seen in question stems.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)11.3.b,c,f
Understanding Direction Verbs, Implication, and InferenceThe previous two lessons are combined in an exercise that assesses the student’s skill in understanding directions, with explanatory feedback for incorrect answers.Exercises (10)11.3.b,c,d
APPROACHING THE READING COMPREHENSION TESTAfter a discussion of how to understand and attack the test questions, students will work through a series of both poems and prose passages of increasing difficulty, always receiving explanatory feedback for incorrect answers.lred
How to Read and Answer a QuestionThis lesson concentrates on how to read the question carefully and look at the text to answer the question before looking at answer options. When determining answer options, students are instructed how to use POE (Process Of Elimination) if their exact answer does not appear.They also learn how to respond to stems like “All of the following EXCEPT” and “Which question is NOT answered in this paragraph?” The process is explained by taking students through sample questions before applying strategies in exercises. Finally, students are reminded to answer EVERY question, even if that means just taking a guess.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)
Reading PoetryUsing Robert Frost’s “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” the students learn how to walk through a poem — from a “plot summary” to a step-by-step analysis of poetic techniques that express the meaning.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,g,h,j
Reading Poetry — Short PoemStudents apply their knowledge and understanding by analyzing “This is just to say” by William Carlos Williams.Exercise (10 questions)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,g,h,j
Reading Poetry — Medium-length PoemStudents apply their knowledge and understanding by analyzing Robert Frost’s “The Road not Taken.”Exercise (10 questions)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,g,h,j
Reading Poetry — Long Poem“Theme for English B” by Langston Hughes allows students to apply their skills to a longer poem with multiple levels.Exercise (12 questions)11.3.f
11.4.a,b,d
Paired PoemsWalt Whitman’s “I Hear America Singing” and Langston Hughes’ “I, Too, Sing America” give the students an opportunity not only to analyze poems, but also to compare how the poets express different views of America, based on their historical times.Exercise (14 questions requiring interpretation of individual poems as well as comparison of the two)11.3.f
11.4.a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,j
Reading Fiction vs Reading NonfictionBefore they move to prose passages, this lesson explains to the students the difference between fiction and nonfiction and gives them hints as to the expectations to take to each genre.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,h,j,k
11.5.a,d,e,i
Reading Fiction vs Reading NonfictionBased only on titles, students decide if a work is most likely fiction or nonfiction. (This exercise simultaneously reviews the genres of nonfiction and stresses the importance of reading titles.)Exercises (10)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,h,j,k
11.5.a,d,e,i
Short Prose PassageThe lesson reminds the students of how to approach a passage — Look at the title, decide it it is fiction or nonfiction, do a quick read, and answer the questions in their heads before looking at the answer options.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,h,j,k
11.5.a,d,e,i
Short Prose Passage 1 — Moderate DifficultyA nonfiction passage about Michael Jordan by David Halberstam is followed by typical questions that the students will see on a test.Exercise (6 questions)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,h,j,k
11.5.a,d,e,i
Short Prose Passage 2 — DifficultStudents interpret and respond to an excerpt from Kate Chopin’s Story of an Hour.”Exercise (6 questions)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,h,j,k
11.5.a,d,e,i
Medium-length Prose PassageThe lesson reminds students of the techniques of interpretation.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,h,j,k
11.5.a,d,e,i
Medium-length Prose Passage 1Students read and analyze a recent article from theNew York Times– “Inside Amazon Go, a Store of the Future” by Caroline Crosson Gibson.Exercise (10 questions)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,h,j,k
11.5.a,d,e,i
Medium-length Prose Passage 2Students read and analyze the opening pages of George Orwell’s 1984.Exercise (11 questions)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,h,j,k
11.5.a,d,e,i
Long passageBecause most of the reading passages on the SOL test are longer ones, the lesson reminds students of the importance of doing a quick reading of the entire passage for overall understanding before attacking the passage paragraph by paragraph. They also are encouraged to take notes/highlight and to remember that they do not have to rush, as this is an untimed test.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,h,j,k
11.5.a,d,e,i
Long Passage 1 — Medium DifficultyStudents read and analyze the short story “Sleeping” by Katherine Weber.Exercise (7 questions)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,h,j,k
11.5.a,d,e,i
Long Passage 2 — DifficultStudents read and respond to “Learning How to Code Switch”, an essay by Eric Deggans.Exercise (1o questions)11.3.f
11.4.c,e,f,h,j,k
11.5.a,d,e,i
Paired PassagesExcerpts from “The Diary of John Wilkes Boothe” and “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass” give students the opportunity to analyze and respond to differing perspectives written contemporaneously.Exercise (14 questions requiring interpretation of individual passages and comparisons)11.3.f
11.4.a,b,c,d,e,f,h,j,k
11.5.a,d,e,f,i
PROSE AND DRAMA
READINGS
August Wilson’s “Fences” and other works TBD11.4.ilred
NOTE11.5.g (Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing) is taught in the composition unit.lred

MULTIMODAL AND RESEARCH
SKILLSDESCRIPTIONTYPESOLS TAUGHTblue
INTRODUCTIONThe research unit combines research with multimodal literacies as it leads students through a variety of online sources with this guiding question: “Why should you get a high school diploma?”11.1
11.2
11.8
lblue
Jobs Requiring a HS DiplomaStudents are directed to a website detailing jobs that require only a HS diploma.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Jobs Requiring a HS DiplomaStudents choose two jobs of interest and note availability, salary, and the application process.Exercises (5)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Choosing a JobStudents are directed to links which require them to read charts and graphs of employment statistics.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Choosing a JobAfter reading applicable websites, students evaluate the choice of trade schools vs. associate degrees.Exercises (7)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Job TrainingStudents learn about the trade school options.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Job TrainingStudents research and evaluate options and financial benefits of trade schools in preparing them for careers.Exercises (6)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Paying the BillsThis lesson directs students to websites that explain the economics of being an adult.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Paying the BillsThrough close reading of a Kiplinger article, students evaluate the necessities that a salary must cover.Exercises (6)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Employment InformationStudents visit a website that compares the salaries of HS graduates and college graduates, as well as employment opportunities in their area.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Employment InformationStudents compile information about jobs in their area that require no further training and no education past a high school diploma.Exercises (5)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Career ResearchStudents are directed to synthesize information they have gathered thus far.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.1.a,b
11.2.b
11.8.c,d
Career ResearchStudents prepare a visual slide presentation of the career that best suits them and their future plans. They are required to cite their sources using MLA format.Exercises (4)11.1.a,b
11.2.b
11.8.c,d
Finding the Right SchoolStudents now investigate whether a four-year college, a community college, or a trade school is their better option.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Finding the Right SchoolBy reading, students learn important differences between their educational options.Exercises (7)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Earning PotentialStudents investigate the hourly and yearly earning potential for jobs in retail and food services.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Earning PotentialStudents evaluate and compare salaries and opportunities for trade workers and food service workers.Exercises (6)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Struggle to SuccessStudents view a TED video by a CNN reporter that debunks some myths about success.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Struggle to SuccessEvaluative questions on the video assess the students’ understanding of the paths to success.Exercises (6)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Why Finish High School?Students are made aware of the stark reality of earning potential without at least a high school diploma.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Why Finish High School?Students are directed to a website that explains the poor earning potential of someone without a high school diploma.Exercises (5)11.2.f
11.8.a,b
Avoiding PlagiarismThis lesson defines plagiarism before sending students to a website to read about the consequences.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.2.f
11.8.e
Avoiding PlagiarismStudents respond to a Perdue Owl article on plagiarism and its consequences.Exercises (6)11.2.f
11.8.e
Evaluating Online SourcesStudents are cautioned to not take any source at face value.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.2.a,c,d,e,g
11.8.f
Evaluating Online SourcesStudents respond to questions about a website link and a political cartoon.Exercises (5)11.2.a,c,d,e,g
11.8.f
Finding the Right Online SourceThis lesson directs students to read web addresses carefully as part of deciding their validity and reliability.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.2.a,c,d,e,g
11.8.f
Finding the Right Online SourceStudents view hypothetical website addresses to evaluate their reliability. They also determine which websites might provide the most applicable information for a particular topic, as they will do on the SOL test.Exercises (5)11.2.a,c,d,e,g
11.8.f
Video ResponseStudents are directed to an online presentation program for recording a multimedia presentation..Video and Text Lessons (1 each)11.1.a,g,h,i
(11.6.d,e)
11.2.b
Video ResponseStudents produce a multimedia presentation focusing on what they learned through their research.Exercise11.1.a,g,h,i
(11.6.d,e)
11.2.b

English 12

VA SOL TESTED STRAND — GRADE 11 READING
CHALLENGEU LESSONS
red
12.3 The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.This unit begins by teaching literary terminology and word decoding skills before moving to specific techniques for reading and understanding SOL test questions. Students then study the differences between prose and poetry before practicing interpretation with examples of increasing difficulty, including paired prose and poetry, Finally, students engage in a detailed study of Shakespeare'sOthelloor Mary Shelley'sFrankenstein.lred
a) Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms, to understand complex words.Vocabulary in Context
b) Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.Vocabulary in Context. Word Connotation/Denotation
c) Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.Word Connotation/Denotation
d) Explain the meaning of common idioms, and literary and classical allusions in text.Implication and Inference, Figurative Language (3 lessons)
e) Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.Understanding Direction Verbs; Poetry and Nonfiction Passage Analyses (11 exercises)
12.4 The student will read, comprehend, and analyze the development of British literature and literature of other cultures.lred
a) Compare and contrast the development of British literature in its historical context.OthelloStudy Unit,FrankensteinStudy Unit
b) Analyze how authors use key literary elements to contribute to meaning and interpret how themes are connected across texts.Reading Poetry; Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Poems Analyses; Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Prose Analysis of Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Passages (Reading Comp)
c) Compare/contrast details in literary and informational nonfiction texts.Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Short Nonfiction 1, Medium Nonfiction 1, Long Nonfiction 2 (Reading Comp)
d) Interpret the social and cultural function of British literature.OthelloStudy Unit, FrankensteinStudy Unit
e) Interpret how the sound and imagery of poetry support the subject, mood, and theme, and appeal to the reader’s senses.Reading Poetry; Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Poems Analyses
f) Compare and contrast traditional and contemporary poems from many cultures.Reading Poetry; Short, Medium, Long, and Paired Poems Analyses
g) Evaluate how dramatic conventions contribute to the theme and effect of plays from American, British, and other cultures.OthelloStudy Unit
h) Use critical thinking to generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, and evaluative questions about the text(s).Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Short Passage 1, Medium Passage 1, and Long Passage 2 Analyses
12.5 The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts.lred
a) Use critical thinking to generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, and evaluative questions about the text(s).Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Short Passage 1, Medium Passage 1, and Long Passage 2 Analyses;OthelloStudy Unit;FrankensteinStudy Unit
b) Identify and synthesize resources to make decisions, complete tasks, and solve specific problems.WorkKeys Workplace Documents Unit
c) Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.Paired Nonfiction Passages
d) Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.Figurative Language (3 lessons)
e) Analyze false premises claims, counterclaims, and other evidencein persuasive writing.Planning the Essay, Writing the Introduction (2 lessons), Body Paragraphs (2 lessons), Writing the Conclusion (2 lessons), Writing an Essay for an SOL Prompt (Writing Unit)
c) Analyze technical writing for clarity.WorkKeys Workplace Documents lessons (4) and practices (8)
d) Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Short Passage 1, Medium Passage 1, and Long Passage 2 Analyses
e) Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Short Passage 1, Medium Passage 1, and Long Passage 2 Analyses
f) Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.Paired Nonfiction Passages
g) Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.Planning the Essay, Writing the Conclusion (Persuasive Essay)
h) Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.Figurative Language — Three Lessons
i) Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).Reading Fiction vs. Nonfiction; Short Passage 1, Medium Passage 1, and Long Passage 2 Analyses
VA SOL TESTED STRAND — GRADE 11 WRITING
CHALLENGEU LESSONS
red
12.6 The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive/argumentative reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation.lred
a) Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.Planning the Essay, Writing the Introduction (2 lessons), Body Paragraphs (2 lessons), Writing the Conclusion (2 lessons), Writing an Essay for an SOL Prompt
b) Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgments, address counterclaims, and provide effective conclusions.Reading and Understanding a Prompt, Formulating a Thesis, Writing a Thesis (Composition Unit); Composing a Thesis (OthelloUnit); Composing a Thesis (FrankensteinUnit)
c) Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to clarify and defend a position organizing claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.Planning the Essay, Writing the Introduction (2 lessons), Body Paragraphs (2 lessons), Writing the Conclusion (2 lessons), Writing an Essay for an SOL Prompt
d) Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.Body Paragraphs (2 lessons)
e) Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.Language in Formal Essays
f) Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to connect all parts of the argument creating cohesion from the information presented.Language in Formal Essays
g) Revise writing for clarity of content, depth of information, and technique of presentation.Writing an Essay for an SOL Prompt
h) Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.Fragments (4 lessons); Run-on and Comma Splice Sentences (4 lessons ); Compound Sentences; Commas (7 lessons); Subject-Verb Agreement (4 lessons); Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement; Pronoun Usage (2 lessons); ApostropHes (3 lessons); and Easily Confused Words (35 lessons).
i) Write to clearly describe personal qualifications for potential occupational or educational opportunities.WorkKeys Business Writing Unit
12.7 The student will self- and peer-edit writing for Standard English.lred
a) Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.Fragments; Run-on Comma Splice Sentences; Compound Sentences (Writing Drills); Sentence Variety and Conciseness
b) Edit, proofread, and prepare writing for intended audience and purpose.Fragments (4 lessons); Run-on and Comma Splice Sentences (4 lessons ); Compound Sentences; Commas (7 lessons); Subject-Verb Agreement (4 lessons); Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement; Pronoun Usage (2 lessons); Apostrophes (3 lessons); and Easily Confused Words (35 lessons).
c) Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation and formatting of direct quotations.Research Presentation (Research Unit)
VA SOL STRAND — GRADE 11 MULTIMODAL COMMUNICATION AND LITERACY
CHALLENGEU LESSONS
blue
12.1 The student will make planned persuasive/argumentative, multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.lblue
a) Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.Google Slide Presentation, Video Responses
b) Credit information sources.Google Slide Presentation
c) Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.Discussion Platform TBD
d) Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.Discussion Platform TBD
e) Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.Google Slide Presentation, Video Responses
f) Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.Discussion Platform TBD
g) Critique effectiveness of multimodal presentations.Jobs Requiring a HS Diploma, Choosing a Job, Job Training, Paying the Bills, Employment Information, Finding the Right School, Earning Potential, Struggle to Success, and Why Finish High School?
12.2 The student will examine how values and points of view are included or excluded and how media influences beliefs and behaviors.lblue
a) Describe possible cause and effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends.Evaluating Online Sources, Choosing the Right Internet Source
b) Evaluate media sources for relationships between intent and factual content.Evaluating Online Sources, Choosing the Right Internet Source
c) Evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind media presentation(s).Evaluating Online Sources, Choosing the Right Internet Source
d) Examine how values and viewpoints are included or excluded and how the media can influence beliefs, behaviors, and interpretations.Evaluating Online Sources, Choosing the Right Internet Source
e) Evaluate sources including advertisements, editorials, political cartoons, and feature stories for relationships between intent and factual content.Evaluating Online Sources, Choosing the Right Internet Source
f) Manage, analyze, and synthesize multiple streams of simultaneous information.Jobs Requiring a HS Diploma, Choosing a Job, Job Training, Paying the Bills, Employment Information, Finding the Right School, Earning Potential, Struggle to Success, and Why Finish High School?
g) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.Evaluating Online Sources, Choosing the Right Internet Source
g) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.Evaluating Online Sources, Finding the Right Online Source
VA SOL STRAND — GRADE 11 RESEARCH
CHALLENGEU LESSONS
blue
12.8 The student will analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and organize information from a variety of credible resources to produce a research product.lblue
a) Frame, analyze, and synthesize information to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.Jobs Requiring a HS Diploma, Choosing a Job, Job Training, Paying the Bills, Employment Information, Finding the Right School, Earning Potential, Struggle to Success, and Why Finish High School?
b) Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view, or bias.Jobs Requiring a HS Diploma, Choosing a Job, Job Training, Paying the Bills, Employment Information, Finding the Right School, Earning Potential, Struggle to Success, and Why Finish High School?
c) Critically evaluate the accuracy, quality, and validity of the information.Jobs Requiring a HS Diploma, Choosing a Job, Job Training, Paying the Bills, Employment Information, Finding the Right School, Earning Potential, Struggle to Success, and Why Finish High School?
d) Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).Career Research
e) Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.Avoiding Plagiarism
f) Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.Evaluating Online Sources, Finding the Right Online Source
WRITING
SKILLSDESCRIPTIONTYPESOLS TAUGHTred
ADAPTIVE LEARNING SKILLS UNITBecause we recognize that many students have deficiencies in basic skills in grammar, mechanics, and usage, this preliminary unit provides an adaptive learning opportunity for strengthening those skills. Students will be directed to these topics when they show specific weaknesses in their writing. Exercises increase in difficulty from very basic to grade-level appropriate, the goal being for the student to write strong, clear, grammatically and mechanically correct sentences when they compose a persuasive essay.At no time do we stress terminology with the students. Terminology is mentioned in the lessons, but the focus is on practice. We want them to recognize an incomplete thought, an incorrect verb, or a wrong pronoun choice.

Practice always trumps terminology.
In this unit we reach back to the SOLs for earlier grades for those students who need intense remediation. The topics were chosen based on teacher experience preparing students for the EOC Writing SOL Test.

The goal is for students to meet standard 12.6.h (editing and revising).
lred
Sentence Structure (Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma-splices)This section focuses on building understanding of clear and complete sentences.Video and Text Lessons (8 of each)8.7.a,c
9.7.b,c
Sentence Structure (Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma-splices)Students progress through practices based on their skill level. There is a bank of 350 exercises in which they identify whether or not a sentence is complete and expresses one clear thought, followed by a bank of 350 paragraphs in which the students must highlight the incomplete or incorrect sentence. Students are taught to read the paragraph backwards as an effective proofreading technique.Sentence Drills (700)
Quizzes (3 10-question)
Tests ( 2 50-question)
8.7.a,c
9.7.b,c
Comma Usage (Sentence Combining)Topics taught in this section include using commas with coordinating conjunctions, using commas with introductory clauses and phrases, using commas with appositives, and deciding between the necessity of commas with essential and nonessential clauses.Video and Text Lessons (5 of each)9.7.b
10.7.b
Comma Usage (Sentence Combining)The exercises require students to understand phrase and clause elements so that they can decide when a comma is necessary. These lessons reinforce the concepts studied in the sentence completeness exercises and teach students to correctly combine simple sentences into more complex ones.Sentence Drills (250)
Quizzes (3 – 10 question)
Tests ( 2 – 50 question)
9.7.b
10.7.b
Comma Usage (Items in a Series, Commas for Attribution)Students learn when commas are necessary in a series of nouns, adjectives, phrases, and clauses, as well as how to use commas with quotations, a skill necessary for using quotations when citing sources in the composition and research units.Video and Text Lessons (2 of each)8.7.f
Comma Usage (Items in a Series, Commas for Attribution)The exercises require students to choose correct comma placement when using quotations, as well as to understand what constitutes a series.Series drills (40)
Attribution drills (20)
Tests covering all comma usage ( 2 – 50 question)
8.7.f
Apostrophe Usage (Possessive Singular)The lesson teaches correct placement of an apostrophe with a singular noun or pronoun, including those singular nouns that end in s.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)5.8.a
Apostrophe Usage (Possessive Singular)Students choose the correct apostrophe placement.Drills (20)5.8.a
Apostrophe Usage (Possessive Plural)The lesson teaches correct placement of an apostrophe with a plural noun or pronoun, with special emphasis on collective nouns.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)5.8.a
Apostrophe Usage (Possessive Plural)Students choose the correct apostrophe placement.Drills (20)
Quiz (20 items covering the use of apostrophes with singular and plural nouns
5.8.a
Apostrophe Usage (Contractions)While being cautioned that contractions should be avoided in formal writing, students learn to use an apostrophe to replace the letters omitted when making a contraction. The lesson teaches both contractions with a noun/pronoun with a helping verb and contractions involving not and have.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)3.9.h
Apostrophe Usage (Contractions)Students choose the correct use of an apostrophe to formulate a contraction.Exercises (20)
Quiz (1 — 50 questions covering all uses of the apostrophe)
3.9.h
AGREEMENTBecause students are surrounded by examples of incorrect agreement (even and, perhaps, particularly in the media), the next lessons concentrate on correcting those problems.lred
Subject-Verb AgreementStudents learn to isolate the subject of a sentence (ignoring prepositional phrases and other intervening words) before deciding on a verb that agrees in number, remembering that a noun forms its plural by adding an s, while a verb forms its plural by dropping the s. Special emphasis is placed on compound and collective subjects.Video and Text Lessons (2 of each)7.8.c
Subject-Verb AgreementUsing the techniques taught in the lesson, students isolate the subject(s) and choose the appropriate verb.Sentence drills (80 of increasing difficulty)7.8.c
Subject-Verb Agreement (to be)This lesson gives special emphasis to the irregular verb “to be” and its forms.Video and Text Lessons (1 of each)7.8.c
Subject-Verb Agreement (to be)Using the techniques taught in the lesson, students isolate the subject(s) and choose the appropriate form of “to be.”Sentence drills (20)7.8.c
Subject-Verb Agreement (to have)This lesson gives special emphasis to problems with the verb “to have” and its forms.Video and Text Lessons (1 of each)7.8.c
Subject-Verb Agreement (to have)Using the techniques taught in the lesson, students isolate the subject(s) and choose the appropriate form of “to have.”Sentence drills (20)7.8.c
Pronoun-Antecedent AgreementBuilding on the idea of agreement in number, this lesson adds the influence of gender and shows the student how to determine the correct pronoun to replace its antecedent.Video and Text Lessons (1 of each)8.7.b
Pronoun-Antecedent AgreementStudents isolate the antecedent of a pronoun and choose the pronoun that agrees in gender and number.Sentence drills (30)8.7.b
Reflexive PronounsThis lesson aims to dispel the idea of there being any “hisself” or “theirselfs” options by teaching students the correct forms of reflexive pronouns and their antecedents, as well as showing them the appropriate times to use a reflexive (a subject not being one of those times).Video and Text Lessons (1 of each)8.7.b
Reflexive PronounsStudents isolate antecedents to choose the correct reflexive form.Sentence drills (20)8.7.b
Subject PronounsThis lesson aims to correct the ubiquitous incorrect use of objective pronouns in place of nominative pronouns by demonstrating the simple technique of reading compound subjects individually with the corresponding verb or preposition.Video and Text Lessons (1 of each)8.7.b
Subject PronounsStudents read sample sentences to determine if the nominative or objective pronoun should be used.Sentence drills (20)8.7.b
EASILY CONFUSED WORDSStudents frequently use words like to/too/too and their/there/they’re incorrectly. If a pattern develops in their writing, they will be directed to the appropriate lesson to learn the differences and correct usage.lred
Its/It’sThis pair serves as an example of how 35 pairs or trios of frequently confused words are studied. Each lesson explains the difference with example sentences and explanations.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)8.8.g
Its/It’sStudents decipher sentences to determine the correct option.Sentence drills (from 20 to 60, depending on how frequently misused the pair/trio is and how much remediation is needed)8.8.g
Easily Confused WordsTo assess learning, students may take quizzes on groups of pairs/trios, which require them to choose the correct form..Quizzes (11 with 10 questions each))8.8.g
INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPOSITION UNITThe aim of the composition unit is to take the students through the step-by-step process of composing a strong persuasive essay, as they will be required to do on the SOL test.

Within the exercises, students will use repeating prompts so that they will essentially be composing various essays throughout the learning process.
For illustration, one prompt is used throughout the lessons:

"Children who are hungry can't concentrate on learning." While some people think that schools should provide meals for students in need, others believe that parents should be responsible for seeing that their children are properly fed.

Take a position on this issue. Support your position with explanations and examples.
lred
COMPOSITION REMINDERSThe unit begins with review instruction on language, voice, and sentence variety.lred
Language in Formal EssaysStudents are instructed to use formal language (not slang) and to remember their audience.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.6.e,f
Language in Formal EssaysStudents choose the best-worded sentences, considering the audience, with constructive feedback for incorrect responses.Exercises (10)12.6.e,f
Sentence Variety in ParagraphsStudents learn how to use verbals to make sentences more concise and varied.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.7.a
Sentence Variety in ParagraphsStudents use verbals to write more forceful and concise sentences.Exercises (10)12.7.a
RESPONDING TO A PROMPTThe lessons now move to how to interpret and answer a prompt to begin the essay process.lred
How to Read and Understand a PromptStudents are taught to read carefully and zero in on exactly what the prompt asks of them, focusing on key words and instructions.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.6.a,b,c
How to Read and Understand a PromptGiven the opening of a prompt, students identify what they are being asked to consider.Exercises (10)12.6.a,b.c
Formulating a Thesis/PositionStudents learn to brainstorm in order to decide a position that they will word strongly, taking a position.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)12.6.a,b.c
Formulating a Thesis/PositionGiven a prompt, students choose the strongest thesis/position statement in response.Exercises (10)12.6.a,b.c
Writing the Thesis/PositionStudents are reminded of the process: Read the prompt, think about it, brainstorm ideas, write down those ideas, and then make a decision.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)12.6.a,b,c
Writing the Thesis/PositionGiven a prompt, students go through the process to write a clear and strong thesis.Exercises (10)12.6.a,b.c
Planning the EssayHaving brainstormed to formulate their thesis/position, students now learn to decide on their three strongest arguments.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.6.a,b.c
Planning the EssayGiven a prompt and a thesis, students choose the argument that will NOT support the position.Exercises (10)12.6.a,b.c
Introductory Paragraph — Part IStudents learn options for the opening: Repeating the prompt, posing a question, or suggesting a situation.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)12.6.a,b.c
Introductory Paragraph — Part IGiven a prompt, students choose the most effective opening statement.Exercises (10)12.6.a,b.c
Introductory Paragraph — Part IIStudents learn options for bridging from the opening statement to the thesis/position: Commenting further on the situation or posing an answer to the question.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)12.6.a,b.c
Introductory Paragraph — Part IIGiven prompts, students compose opening paragraphs in response.Exercises (10)12.6.a,b.c
Body Paragraphs — Topic SentenceThe focus in this lesson is to use one of the points from the planning lesson and begin with a transitional word or phrase.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)12.6.a,b.c.d
Body Paragraphs — Topic SentenceGiven a thesis/position statement, students choose the best opening statement for a subsequent body paragraph. Constructive feedback is given for incorrect answers.Exercises (10)12.6.a,b.c.d
Body Paragraphs — Explanation and ImportanceOnce they have an opening statement, students learn that they must explain it and tie it back to the thesis. They see this process via sample body paragraphs of increasing appropriateness.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)12.6.a,b.c.d
Body Paragraphs — Explanation and ImportanceGiven a thesis, students read a sample body paragraph and decide what, if anything, is missing — The topic sentence with transition, the explanatory sentence, or the concluding sentence relating back to the thesis The point of the exercise is to get them to recognize the three things that must be in every body paragraph.Exercises (10)12.6.a,b.c.d
Writing the Conclusion Part IThis lesson concentrates on opening the conclusion with the concession/counterclaim, immediately followed by the rebuttal and the call to action.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)12.6.a,b.c
Writing the Conclusion Part IGiven a prompt and a sample concluding paragraph, students decide what, if anything, is missing — the counterclaim, the rebuttal, or the call to action.Exercises (10)12.6.a,b.c
Writing the Conclusion Part IIStudents review everything that the conclusion requires by looking at several examples.Video and Text Lessons (2 each)12.6.a,b,c
Writing the Conclusion Part IIUsing prompts that they have considered throughout the exercises, students compose a concluding paragraph for each.Exercises (10)12.6.a,b,c
Writing an Essay for an SOL PromptBefore the students write on their own, this lesson reviews all the components and stresses the fact that they know what to do! Many students are simply afraid of writing an essay, but these lessons and exercises have show them exactly how to approach a topic and write an acceptable essay in response.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.6.a,b,c
12.7.b
Writing and Essay for an SOL PromptGiven a prompt, students compose a persuasive essay that conforms to the standards.Exercises (10)12.6.a,b.c
12.7.b
NOTES12.6.i (Write to clearly describe personal qualifications for potential occupational or educational opportunities.) will be taught in the WorkKeys Business Writing Unit.lred
12.7.c (Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation and formatting of direct quotations.) is taught in the Research Unit.lred
READING
SKILLSDESCRIPTIONTYPESOLS TAUGHTred
INTRODUCTION TO READING COMPREHENSION UNITUsing the metaphor of a road map, students see that they will work through the unit step by step.Video lesson12.3
12.4
12.5
lred
LITERARY AND RHETORICAL TERMINOLOGYThese lessons concentrate on preparing the student to interpret prose and poetry with a strong vocabulary base.lred
Basic Literary Terms — Thesis/Theme, Organizational Structures, Purpose, Tone/Attitude, Mood/Atmosphere, Syntax, Flashback, Foreshadowing, ConflictThis lesson reviews essential literary terms, defining these and showing students how to recognize and apply them.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.3.d
12.5.d
Basic Literary Terms — Thesis/Theme, Organizational Structures, Purpose, Tone/Attitude, Mood/Atmosphere, Syntax, Flashback, Foreshadowing, ConflictStudents identify and apply literary terms by reading examples, receiving feedback explanation for any incorrect answers.Exercises (10)12.3.d
12.5.d
Figurative Language Part I — Imagery, Personification, SymbolismThe lesson defines the terms and shows the students how to recognize them and their effects, by providing and explaining examples.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.3.d
12.5.d
Figurative Language Part 1 — Imagery, Personification, SymbolismStudents identify the type of figurative language as used in a sentence. Incorrect answers receive explanatory feedback.Exercises (10)12.3.d
12.5.d
Figurative Language Part 2 — Irony, Simile, MetaphorThis lesson defines the types of irony and explains the difference between metaphor and simile.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.3.d
12,5,d
Figurative Language Part 2 — Irony, Simile, MetaphorReading example sentences utilizing the various figures of speech, students identify the technique used and receive explanatory feedback for any incorrect answers.Exercises (10)12.3.d
12.5.d
Figurative Language Part 3 — Alliteration, Onomatopoeia, Allusion, Understatement, OverstatementWith examples and explanations, this lesson shows students how to recognize sound devices as well as references outside the text and reasons that an author might over- or understate.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.3.d
125.5.d
Figurative language Part 3 — Alliteration, Onomatopoeia, Allusion, Understatement, OverstatementStudents identify the techniques as used in sample sentences and receive explanatory feedback for any incorrect answers.Exercises (10)12.3.d
12.5.d
UNDERSTANDING ESSENTIAL VOCABULARYNext, the students learn techniques for interpreting the meanings and uses of sometimes difficult words, in addition to understanding verbs commonly used in test directions and stems.lred
Vocabulary in ContextThe lesson explains how the student can use various context clues (synonyms, definitions, restatement) to decipher word meanings.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.3.a
Vocabulary in ContextStudents apply the techniques in sample test questions, receiving feedback for any incorrect answers.Exercises (10)12.3.a
Word Connotation/DenotationStudents learn techniques for distinguishing between the exact and implied meanings of words.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.3.a,b
Word Connotation/DenotationStudents apply their understanding of connotation by choosing the word that best fits the emotional tone of the sentence.Exercises (10)12.3.a,b
Implication and InferenceThis lesson defines the terms and extends student understanding of words beyond their denotation.They are shown how a writer IMPLIES and a reader INFERS.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.3.d
Understanding Direction VerbsThe lesson reviews and explains the meanings of direction verbs commonly seen in question stems.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.3.e
Understanding Direction Verbs, Implication, and InferenceThe previous two lessons are combined in an exercise that assesses the student’s skill in understanding directions, with explanatory feedback for incorrect answers.Exercises (10)12.3.d,e
APPROACHING THE READING COMPREHENSION TESTAfter a discussion of how to understand and attack the test questions, students will work through a series of both poems and prose passages of increasing difficulty, always receiving explanatory feedback for incorrect answers.lred
How to Read and Answer a QuestionThis lesson concentrates on how to read the question carefully and look at the text to answer the question on their own before looking at the answer options. When then looking at the answer options, they are instructed how to use POE (process of elimination) if their exact answer does not appear.They also learn how to respond to stems like “All of the following EXCEPT” and “Which question is NOT answered in this paragraph?” The process is explained by taking them through sample questions before they apply the strategies in the exercises Finally, they are reminded to answer EVERY question, even if that means just taking a guess.,.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)
Reading PoetryUsing Robert Frost’s “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” the students learn how to walk through a poem — from a “plot summary” to a step-by-step analysis of poetic techniques that express the meaning.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.3.e
12.4.b,e,f
Reading Poetry — Short PoemStudents apply their knowledge and understanding by analyzing “This is just to say” by William Carlos Williams.Exercise (10 questions)12.3.e
12.4.b,e,f
Reading Poetry — Medium-length PoemStudents apply their knowledge and understanding by analyzing Robert Frost’s “The Road not Taken.”Exercise (10 questions)12.3.e
12.4.b,e,f
Reading Poetry — Long Poem“Theme for English B” by Langston Hughes allows students to apply their skills to a longer poem with multiple levels.Exercise (12 questions)12.3.e
12.4.b,e,f
Paired PoemsWalt Whitman’s “I Hear America Singing” and Langston Hughes’ “I, Too, Sing America” give the students an opportunity not only to analyze poems, but also to compare how the poets express different views of America, based on their historical times.Exercise (14 questions requiring interpretation of individual poems as well as comparison of the two)12.3.e
12.4.b,e,f
Reading Fiction vs Reading NonfictionBefore they move to prose passages, this lesson explains to the students the difference between fiction and nonfiction and gives them hints as to the expectations to take to each genre.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.3.e
12.4.b,c
12.5.a
Reading Fiction vs Reading NonfictionBased only on titles, students decide if a work is most likely fiction or nonfiction. (This exercise simultaneously reviews the genres of nonfiction and stresses the importance of reading titles.)Exercises (10)12.3.e
12.4.b,c,h
12.5.a
Short Prose PassageThe lesson reminds the students of how to approach a passage — Look at the title, decide it it is fiction or nonfiction, do a quick read, and answer the questions in their heads before looking at the answer options.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.3.e
12.4.b,c,h
Short Prose Passage 1 — Moderate DifficultyA nonfiction passage about Michael Jordan by David Halberstam is followed by typical questions that the students will see on a test.Exercise (6 questions)12.3.e
12.4.c
12.5.a
Short Prose Passage 2 — DifficultStudents interpret and respond to an excerpt from Kate Chopin’s Story of an Hour.”Exercise (6 questions)12.3.e
12.4.b,c
Medium-length Prose PassageThe lesson reminds students of the techniques of interpretation.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.3.e
12.4.b,c,h
Medium-length Prose Passage 1Students read and analyze a recent article from theNew York Times– “Inside Amazon Go, a Store of the Future” by Caroline Crosson Gibson.Exercise (10 questions)12.3.e
12.4.c
12.5.a
Medium-length Prose Passage 2Students read and analyze the opening pages of George Orwell’s 1984.Exercise (11 questions)12.3.e
12.4.b,c,h
12.5.a
Long passageBecause most of the reading passages on the SOL test are longer ones, the lesson reminds students of the importance of doing a quick reading of the entire passage for overall understanding before attacking the passage paragraph by paragraph. They also are encouraged to take notes/highlight and to remember that they do not have to rush, as this is an untimed test.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.3.e
12.4.b.c,h
12.5.a
Long Passage 1 — Medium DifficultyStudents read and analyze the short story “Sleeping” by Katherine Weber.Exercise (7 questions)12.3.e
12.4.b,c,
Long Passage 2 — DifficultStudents read and respond to “Learning How to Code Switch”, an essay by Eric Deggans.Exercise (1o questions)12.3.e
12.4.c
12.5.a
Paired PassagesExcerpts from “The Diary of John Wilkes Boothe” and “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass” give students the opportunity to analyze and respond to differing perspectives written contemporaneously.Exercise (14 questions requiring interpretation of individual passages and comparisons)12.3.e
12.4.c
12.5.a,c
OPEN READING
OTHELLOby William Shakespeare
12.4.a,b,d,g,hlred
Character IntroStudents are introduced to the main characters to set expectations.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)
Character IntroStudents respond to a quick check to demonstrate character knowledgeExercise (10 questions)
Acts I-VEach act includes the listed activities.
Make It Real to UsAnticipatory magazine-style quiz to help students think about the actionExercise (3 questions for self-evaluation)
Introduction to the ActBrief summary with points for the students to noteText and Video Lesson (1 each)
Link to the movie versionFor enrichment and further understanding
Act SummaryReview emphasizing important plot points and appropriate drama terminologyText Lesson and Presentation12.3.e
Act QuizEvaluation of student understanding of plot, character, and techniqueExercise (10 questions)
Formulating a Thesis/PositionStudents learn the components necessary to compose a strong thesis for a literary analysis essay. This lesson supports the PERSUASIVE WRITING UNIT in its emphasis on composing an arguable thesis/position.Text and Video Lessons (1 each)12.6.b (WRITING)
Formulating a Thesis/PositionStudents choose the strongest thesis, with explanatory feedback for incorrect answers.Exercises (5)12.6.b (WRITING)
Formulating a Thesis/PositionStudents choose the strongest thesis, with explanatory feedback for incorrect answers.Exercises (5)12.6.b (WRITING)
Formulating a Thesis/PositionGiven prompts, students write strong thesis/position statements.Exercises (3)12.6.b (WRITING)
OthelloTestTest includes 50 multiple choice questions to evaluate understanding of plot, character, and dramatic techniques. Students must also write a strong thesis and, given an example, one supporting paragraph.Test
OPEN READING
FRANKENSTEINby Mary Shelley
Shelley’s novel has become part of Western culture, but not always accurately. In this unit students will read an adapted version of the story while viewing enrichment videos that demonstrate the far-reaching influence of the story. A lesson on satire and parody at the end of the study encapsulates the role of the novel and its characters in popular culture.12.4.a.b,d,hlred
FrankensteinvideoLink to Hollywood producers discussing movie monsters to spur student interestEnrichment and anticipatory activity
FrankensteinIntroductionPresentation to be sure that students are ready for the REAL story, as opposed to the many adaptations.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)
Mary Shelley IntroductionPresentation to introduce the author’s place in British Literature and her reasons for writing the novelVideo and Text Lessons (1 each)
Romanticism IntroductionPresentation to putFrankensteinin its literary and historical contextVideo and Text Lessons (1 each)
Character IntroductionPresentation of characters and their roles in the novelVideo and Text Lessons (1 each)
Character IntroductionBrief exercise to assess student understanding of the main charactersExercises (7)
Make It Real to UsMagazine-style poll to pique student interestExercise (3 questions for self-evaluation)
Chapters 1-6Each chapter includes a three-question check to assess student understanding, followed by explanatory feedback to incorrect answers.Exercises (18 questions)
Reading QuestCheck of understanding for Chapters 1-6Quiz (15 questions)
Video linkVideo provides a realistic look at how Frankenstein’s monster might have come to life.Enrichment activity to spur student interest
Make It Real to UsMagazine-style poll in anticipation of the next chaptersExercise (3 questions for self-evaluation)
Chapters 7-16Each chapter includes a three-question check to assess student understanding, followed by explanatory feedback to incorrect answers.Exercises (30 questions)
Reading Quest Chapters 7-16Check of understanding for Chapters 7-16Quiz (15 questions)
Make It Real to UsMagazine-style poll in anticipation of the next chaptersExercise (3 questions for self-evaluation)
Video linkVideo shows movie artists constructing the head of Frankenstein’s monster.Enrichment activity to spur student interest
Chapters 17-22Each chapter includes a three-question check to assess student understanding, followed by explanatory feedback to incorrect answers.Exercises (15 questions)
Reading Quest Chapters 17-22Check of understanding for Chapters 7-16Quiz (15 questions)
Make It Real to UsMagazine-style poll at the conclusion of the novelExercise (3 questions for self-evaluation)
Formulating a Thesis/PositionStudents learn the components necessary to compose a strong thesis for a literary analysis essay. This lesson supports the PERSUASIVE WRITING UNIT in its emphasis on composing an arguable thesis/position.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.6.b (WRITING)
Formulating a Thesis/PositionGiven a prompt, students choose the strongest thesis, with explanatory feedback.Exercises (5)12.6.b (WRITING)
Formulating a Thesis/PositionGiven a prompt, students choose the strongest thesis, with explanatory feedback.Exercises (5)12.6.b (WRITING)
Writing a Strong Thesis/PositionGiven a prompt, students write a strong thesis.Exercise (3)12.6.b (WRITING)
Video linkThis video takes students to an advertisement for a forthcoming TV show based on Frankenstein’s monster.Enrichment activity
Satire and ParodyWhileFrankensteinitself is not satirical, it has become the basis for satire and parody. The lesson takes students to a video of a parody ofFrankensteinthat comments on the idea of white privilege.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.4.b,d
Satire and ParodyStudents complete a multiple choice exercise to demonstrate their understanding of satire and parodyExercises (5)12.4.b,d
Video linkFrankensteinin popular culture
NOTES12.5.b (Identify and synthesize resources to make decisions, complete tasks, and solve specific problems) will be taught in the WorkKeys Business Writing Unit.lred
12.5.e (Analyze false premises claims, counterclaims, and other evidencein persuasive writing) is taught in the WRITING Unit — 12.6.b.lred
MULTIMODAL AND RESEARCH
SKILLSDESCRIPTIONTYPESOLS TAUGHTblue
INTRODUCTIONThe research unit combines research with multimodal literacies as it leads students through a variety of online sources with this guiding question: “Why should you get a high school diploma?”12.1
12.2
12.8
lblue
Jobs Requiring a HS DiplomaStudents are directed to a website detailing jobs that require only a HS diploma.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Jobs Requiring a HS DiplomaStudents choose two jobs of interest and note availability, salary, and the application process.Exercises (5)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Choosing a JobStudents are directed to links which require them to read charts and graphs of employment statistics.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Choosing a JobAfter reading applicable websites, students evaluate the choice of trade schools vs. associate degrees.Exercises (7)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Job TrainingStudents learn about the trade school options.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Job TrainingStudents research and evaluate options and financial benefits of trade schools in preparing them for careers.Exercises (6)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Paying the BillsThis lesson directs students to websites that explain the economics of being an adult.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Paying the BillsThrough close reading of a Kiplinger article, students evaluate the necessities that a salary must cover.Exercises (6)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Employment InformationStudents visit a website that compares the salaries of HS graduates and college graduates, as well as employment opportunities in their area.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Employment InformationStudents compile information about jobs in their area that require no further training and no education past a high school diploma.Exercises (5)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Career ResearchStudents are directed to synthesize information they have gathered thus far.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.1.a,b,e12.8.d
Career ResearchStudents prepare a visual slide presentation of the career that best suits them and their future plans. They are required to cite their sources using MLA format.Exercises (4)12.1.a,b,e
12.8.d
Finding the Right SchoolStudents now investigate whether a four-year college, a community college, or a trade school is their better option.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Finding the Right SchoolBy reading, students learn important differences between their educational options.Exercises (7)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Earning PotentialStudents investigate the hourly and yearly earning potential for jobs in retail and food services.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Earning PotentialStudents evaluate and compare salaries and opportunities for trade workers and food service workers.Exercises (6)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Struggle to SuccessStudents view a TED video by a CNN reporter that debunks some myths about success.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Struggle to SuccessEvaluative questions on the video assess the students’ understanding of the paths to success.Exercises (6)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Why Finish High School?Students are made aware of the stark reality of earning potential without at least a high school diploma.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Why Finish High School?Students are directed to a website that explains the poor earning potential of someone without a high school diploma.Exercises (5)12.1.g
12.2.f
12.8.a,b,c
Avoiding PlagiarismThis lesson defines plagiarism before sending students to a website to read about the consequences.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.8.e
Avoiding PlagiarismStudents respond to a Perdue Owl article on plagiarism and its consequences.Exercises (6)12.8.e
Evaluating Online SourcesStudents are cautioned to not take any source at face value.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.2.a,b,c,d,e,g
12.8.f
Evaluating Online SourcesStudents respond to questions about a website link and a political cartoon.Exercises (5)12.2.a,b,c,d,e,g
12.8.f
Finding the Right Online SourceThis lesson directs students to read web addresses carefully as part of deciding their validity and reliability.Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.2.a,b,c,d,e,g
12.8.f
Finding the Right Online SourceStudents view hypothetical website addresses to evaluate their reliability. They also determine which websites might provide the most applicable information for a particular topic, as they will do on the SOL test.Exercises (5)12.2.a,b,c,d,e,g
12.8.f
Video ResponseStudents are directed to an online presentation program for recording a multimedia presentation..Video and Text Lessons (1 each)12.1.a,b,e
12.8.d
Video ResponseStudents produce a multimedia presentation focusing on what they learned through their research.Exercise12.1.a,b,e
12.8.d

US Government

VA SOL STRAND — US GOVERNMENT
CHALLENGEU LESSONS
blue
GOVT. 1 The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship bylblue
a) planning inquiries by synthesizing information from diverse primary and secondary sources;3-3; The Mass Media and Public Opinion
7-2; Raising Revenue to Pay for Policies
7-3; The Budget and Federal Spending
8-3; Foreign Policy; Costs and Benefits
b) analyzing how political and economic trends influence public policy, using demographic information and other data sources;7-2; Raising Revenue to Pay for Policies
7-3; The Budget and Federal Spending
8-3; Foreign Policy; Costs and Benefits
c) comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives;3-3; The Mass Media and Public Opinion
8-3; Foreign Policy; Costs and Benefits
d) evaluating critically the quality, accuracy, and validity of information to determine misconceptions, fact and opinion, and bias;3-3; The Mass Media and Public Opinion
e) constructing informed, analytic arguments, using evidence from multiple sources to introduce and support substantive and significant claims;(all writing prompts)
f) explaining how cause-and-effect relationships impact political and economic events;1-3; Citizenship
7-4; Politics of Policy
10-3; Local Government
g) taking knowledgeable, constructive action, individually and collaboratively, to address school, community, local, state, national, and global issues;3-4; Interest Groups
10-3; Local Government
h) using a decision-making model to analyze the costs and benefits of a specific choice, considering incentives and possible consequences;10-3; Local Government
i) applying civic virtues and democratic principles to make collaborative decisions; and10-3; Local Government
j) communicating conclusions orally and in writing to a wide range of audiences, using evidence from multiple sources and citing specific sources.(all writing prompts)
GOVT.2 The student will apply social science skills to understand the political philosophies that shaped the development of Virginia and United States constitutional government bylblue
a) describing the development of Athenian democracy and the Roman republic to differentiate between a democracy and a republic;1-2; Ideas That Shaped American Democracy
b) explaining the influence of the Magna Carta, the English Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights;1-2; Ideas That Shaped American Democracy
c) evaluating the writings of Hobbes, Locke, and Montesquieu;1-2; Ideas That Shaped American Democracy
d) explaining the guarantee of the “rights of Englishmen” set forth in the charters of the Virginia Company of London;1-2; Ideas That Shaped American Democracy
e) analyzing the natural rights philosophies expressed in the Declaration of Independence; and1-2; Ideas That Shaped American Democracy
f) evaluating and explaining George Mason’s Virginia Declaration of Rights, Thomas Jefferson’s Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and James Madison’s leadership role in securing adoption of the Bill of Rights by the First Congress.2-1; The Birth of the U.S. Constitution
GOVT.3 The student will apply social science skills to understand the concepts of democracy bylblue
a) recognizing the fundamental worth and dignity of the individual;1-4; Basic Concepts of Democracy
b) recognizing the equality of all citizens under the law;1-4; Basic Concepts of Democracy
c) recognizing what defines a citizen and how noncitizens can become citizens;1-4; Basic Concepts of Democracy
d) recognizing majority rule and minority rights;1-4; Basic Concepts of Democracy
e) recognizing the necessity of compromise; and1-4; Basic Concepts of Democracy
f) recognizing the freedom of the individual.1-4; Basic Concepts of Democracy
GOVT.4 The student will apply social science skills to understand the Constitution of the United States bylblue
a) examining the ratification debates andThe Federalist;2-1; The Birth of the U.S. Constitution
2-3; The Seven Articles
b) evaluating the purposes for government stated in the Preamble;2-3; The Seven Articles
c) examining the fundamental principles upon which the Constitution of the United States is based, including the rule of law, consent of the governed, limited government, separation of powers, and federalism;2-1; The Birth of the U.S. Constitution
2-2; The Six Principles of the Constitution
2-3; The Seven Articles
2-5; Federalism and the Division of Power
2-6; Interstate Cooperation
d) defining the structure of the national government outlined in Article I, Article II, and Article III; and2-3; The Seven Articles
e) analyzing and explaining the amendment process.2-3; The Seven Articles
2-4; The Twenty Seven Amendments
GOVT.5 The student will apply social science skills to understand the federal system of government described in the Constitution of the United States bylblue
a) evaluating the relationship between the state government and the national government;2-4; The Twenty-Seven Amendments
2-5; Federalism and the Division of Power
2-6; Interstate Cooperation
b) examining the extent to which power is shared;2-4; The Twenty-Seven Amendments
2-5; Federalism and the Division of Power
2-6; Interstate Cooperation
c) identifying the powers denied state and national governments; and2-4; The Twenty-Seven Amendments
2-5; Federalism and the Division of Power
d) analyzing the ongoing debate that focuses on the balance of power between state and national governments.2-4; The Twenty-Seven Amendments
2-5; Federalism and the Division of Power
2-6; Interstate Cooperation
GOVT.6 The student will apply social science skills to understand local, state, and national elections bylblue
a) describing the nomination and election process, including the organization and evolving role of political parties;3-1; Political Parties and What They Do
3-2; America’s Two-Party System
3-5; The Election Process
b) examining campaign funding and spending, including the impact of Supreme Court decisions, the nationalization of campaign financing, and the role of issue groups;3-4; Interest Groups
3-5; The Election Process
c) analyzing the influence of media coverage, campaign advertising, public opinion polls, social media, and digital communications on elections;3-3; The Mass Media and Public Opinion
3-4; Interest Groups
d) investigating and explaining the impact of reapportionment and redistricting on elections and governance;3-2; America’s Two-Party System
3-5; The Election Process
4-1; Congress: A Bicameral Legislature
e) describing how amendments have extended the right to vote; and2-3; The Seven Articles
2-4; The Twenty-Seven Amendments
f) analyzing voter turnout in local, state, and national elections.3-5; The Election Process
GOVT.7 The student will apply social science skills to understand the organization and powers of the national government bylblue
a) examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches;4-1; Congress: A Bicameral Legislature
4-2; The Organization of Congress
4-3; The Powers of Congress
4-4; How a Bill Becomes a Law
5-1; Electing the President
5-2; Powers of the President
5-3; Presidential Roles and Succession
6-1; Powers of the Federal Courts
6-2; The Organization of the Federal Court System
6-3; The Supreme Court at Work
b) analyzing the relationships among the three branches in a system of checks and balances and separation of powers; and2-2; The Six Principles of the Constitution
4-3; The Powers of Congress
5-2; Powers of the President
6-1; Powers of the Federal Courts
c) investigating and explaining the ways individuals and groups exert influence on the national government.3-4; Interest Groups
10-3; Local Government
GOVT.8 The student will apply social science skills to understand the organization and powers of the state and local governments described in the Constitution of Virginia bylblue
a) examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches;10-1; State Constitutions and Structure
b) examining the structure and powers of local governments (county, city, and town);10-3; Local Government
c) analyzing the relationship between state and local governments and the roles of regional authorities, governing boards, and commissions;10-3; Local Government
d) investigating and explaining the ways individuals and groups exert influence on state and local governments; and3-4; Interest Groups
10-3; Local Government
e) evaluating the effectiveness of citizen efforts to influence decisions of state and local governments by examining historical or contemporary events.3-4; Interest Groups
10-3; Local Government
GOVT.9 The student will apply social science skills to understand the process by which public policy is made bylblue
a) defining public policy and determining how to differentiate public and private action;7-1; Domestic Policy; Costs and Benefits
b) examining different perspectives on the role of government;3-2; America’s Two-Party System
c) describing how the national government influences the public agenda and shapes public policy by examining examples such as the Equal Rights Amendment, theAmericans with Disabilities Act (ADA), andSection 9524 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965;4-4; How a Bill Becomes a Law
7-1; Domestic Policy; Costs and Benefits
d) describing how the state and local governments influence the public agenda and shape public policy;10-2; State Policies; Taxing and Spending
10-3; Local Government
e) investigating and evaluating the process by which policy is implemented by the bureaucracy at each level;4-4; How a Bill Becomes a Law
5-4; The Federal Bureaucracy
10-1; State Constitutions and Structure
10-2; State Policies; Taxing and Spending
f) analyzing how the incentives of individuals, interest groups, and the media influence public policy; and1-3; Citizenship
2-5; Federalism and the Division of Power
10-3; Local Government
g) devising a course of action to address local and/or state issues.10-3; Local Government
GOVT.10 The student will apply social science skills to understand the federal judiciary by6-4lblue
a) describing the organization, jurisdiction, and proceedings of federal courts;6-1; Powers of the Federal Courts
6-2; The Organization of the Federal Court System
6-4; The Trial Process
b) evaluating how the Marshall Court established the Supreme Court as an independent branch of government through its opinion inMarbury v.Madison;6-3; The Supreme Court at Work
c) describing how the Supreme Court decides cases;6-3; The Supreme Court at Work
d) comparing the philosophies of judicial activism and judicial restraint; and6-3; The Supreme Court at Work
e) investigating and evaluating how the judiciary influences public policy by delineating the power of government and safeguarding the rights of the individual.2-2; The Six Principles of the Constitution
6-1; Powers of the Federal Courts
6-3; The Supreme Court at Work
GOVT.11 The student will apply social science skills to understand civil liberties and civil rights bylblue
a) examining the Bill of Rights, with emphasis on First Amendment freedoms;9-1; Five Freedoms of the First Amendment
9-2; Security of the Person; Amendments 2, 3 & 4
9-3; Rights of the Accused; Amendment 5
9-4; Fair Trials and Punishments; Amendments 6, 7 & 8
9-5; Extending Our Rights; Amendments 9, 10 & 14
b) analyzing due process of law expressed in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments;6-4; The Trial Process
9-3; Rights of the Accused; Amendment 5
9-4; Fair Trials and Punishments; Amendments 6, 7 & 8
9-5; Extending Our Rights; Amendments 9, 10 & 14
c) explaining how the Supreme Court has applied most of the protections of the Bill of Rights to the states through a process of selective incorporation;6-3; The Supreme Court at Work
9-5; Extending Our Rights; Amendments 9, 10 & 14
d) investigating and evaluating the balance between individual liberties and the public interest; and1-4; Basic Concepts of Democracy
9-1; Five Freedoms of the First Amendment
e) examining how civil liberties and civil rights are protected under the law.9-6; Civil Rights
GOVT.12 The student will apply social science skills to understand the role of the United States in a changing world bylblue
a) describing the responsibilities of the national government for foreign policy and national security;4-3; The Powers of Congress
5-2; Powers of the President
5-4; The Federal Bureaucracy
8-1; Basic Goals of Foreign Policy
8-2; Carrying Out Foreign Policy
8-3; Foreign Policy; Costs and Benefits
8-4; Key Players in Foreign Policy
b) assessing the role of national interest in shaping foreign policy and promoting world peace; and8-2; Carrying Out Foreign Policy
8-3; Foreign Policy; Costs and Benefits
c) examining the relationship of Virginia and the United States to the global economy, including trends in international trade.8-2; Carrying Out Foreign Policy
GOVT.13 The student will apply social science skills to understand how world governments and economies compare and contrast with the government and the economy in the United States bylblue
a) describing the distribution of governmental power;1-1; Origins of Government and the State
1-2; Ideas that Shaped American Democracy
1-4; Basic Concepts of Democracy
2-2; The Six Principles of the Constitution
b) explaining the relationship between the legislative and executive branches;1-1; Origins of Government and the State
1-2; Ideas that Shaped American Democracy
1-4; Basic Concepts of Democracy
2-2; The Six Principles of the Constitution
c) comparing and contrasting the extent of participation in the political process; and1-1; Origins of Government and the State
1-2; Ideas that Shaped American Democracy
1-4; Basic Concepts of Democracy
2-2; The Six Principles of the Constitution
d) comparing and contrasting economic systems.5-5; The President and the Budget Process
7-1; Domestic Policy Costs and Benefits
7-2; Raising Revenue to Pay for Policies
7-3; The Budget and Federal Spending
7-4; Politics of Policy
10-2 State Policies; Taxing and Spending
GOVT.14 The student will apply social science skills to understand economic systems bylblue
a) identifying the basic economic questions encountered by all economic systems;1-4; Basic Concepts of Democracy
7-3; The Budget and Federal Spending
7-4; Politics of Policy
b) comparing the characteristics of traditional, free market, command, and mixed economies, as described by Adam Smith and Karl Marx; and7-3; The Budget and Federal Spending
7-4; Politics of Policy
8-1; Basic Goals of Foreign Policy
c) evaluating the impact of the government’s role in the economy on individual economic freedoms.7-3; The Budget and Federal Spending
7-4; Politics of Policy
10-2; State Policies; Taxing and Spending
GOVT.15 The student will apply social science skills to understand the role of government in the Virginia and United States economies bylblue
a) describing the provision of government goods and services that are not readily produced by the market;7-1; Domestic Policy; Costs and Benefits
7-3; The Budget and Federal Spending
7-4; Politics of Policy
b) describing government’s establishment and maintenance of the rules and institutions in which markets operate, including the establishment and enforcement of property rights, contracts, consumer rights, labor-management relations, environmental protection, and competition in the marketplace;1-4; Basic Concepts of Democracy
7-4; Politics of Policy
c) investigating and describing the types and purposes of taxation that are used by local, state, and federal governments to pay for services provided by the government;7-2; Raising Revenue to Pay for Policies
10-2; State Policies; Taxing and Spending
10-3; Local Government
d) analyzing how Congress can use fiscal policy to stabilize the economy;5-5; The President and the Budget Process
7-3; The Budget and Federal Spending
7-4; Politics of Policy
e) describing the effects of the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy on price stability, employment, and the economy; and7-1; Domestic Policy; Costs and Benefits
7-3; The Budget and Federal Spending
7-4; Politics of Policy
f) evaluating the trade-offs in government decisions.7-4; Politics of Policy
GOVT.16 The student will apply social science skills to understand that in a democratic republic, thoughtful and effective participation in civic life is characterized bylblue
a) exercising personal character traits such as trustworthiness, responsibility, and honesty;1-3; Citizenship
10-3; Local Government
b) obeying the law and paying taxes;1-3; Citizenship
10-3; Local Government
c) serving as a juror;1-3; Citizenship
10-3; Local Government
d) participating in the political process and voting in local, state, and national elections;1-3; Citizenship
10-3; Local Government
e) performing public service;1-3; Citizenship
10-3; Local Government
f) keeping informed about current issues;1-3; Citizenship
10-3; Local Government
g) respecting differing opinions and the rights of others;1-3; Citizenship
10-3; Local Government
h) practicing personal and fiscal responsibility;1-3; Citizenship
10-3; Local Government
i) demonstrating the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that foster the responsible and respectful use of digital media; and1-3; Citizenship
10-3; Local Government
j) practicing patriotism.1-3; Citizenship
10-3; Local Government
ENGLISH WRITING 12.6
a) Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
b) Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgments, address counterclaims, and provide effective conclusions.
c) Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to clarify and defend a position organizing claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.
e) Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.
f) Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to connect all parts of the argument creating cohesion from the information presented.
To support cross-curricular learning, each government unit ends with a lesson that aligns with English 12 Writing SOLs.lred
LESSONT TITLE
CONTENT OVERVIEW
ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
SOL ALIGNMENT
blue
UNIT 1: FOUNDATIONS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENTlblue
1-1 Origins of Government and “The State”Why do we have a government anyway? How did “the state” develop? Who’s to decide who has authority to rule?
Let’s take a look at the origins of government.
This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 13a – c
1-2 Ideas That Shaped American DemocracyFrom ancient civilizations to the Age of Enlightenment, what ideas helped to create the democratic beliefs of America?
Let’s evaluate the ideas that helped create American Democracy.
This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 2a – e,
GOVT. 13a – c
1-3 CitizenshipWhat makes us uniquely “American” and how do we practice our citizenship?
Let’s define what citizenship means in America, and how we have become a “melting pot.”
This lesson features text and video instruction, a chart analysis exercise, practice questions from the U.S. Citizenship Test, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 1f
GOVT. 9f
GOVT. 16a – j
1-4 Basic Concepts of DemocracyThere are five basic elements to America’s democratic principles, but how do they play out in our diverse society?
From liberty and compromise to majority rule, let’s see what Americans should expect from the government.
This lesson features text and video instruction, a Likert Survey, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 3a – f
GOVT. 11d
GOVT. 13a – c
GOVT. 15b
Unit AssessmentVocabulary Review Activities
20 Multiple Choice Questions
Free Response Writing
GOVT. 1e, 1j
ENGLISH WRITING
12.6.a,b,c,e,f
lred
UNIT 2: THE CONSTITUTION AND FEDERALISMlblue
2-1 The Birth of the U.S. ConstitutionFrom the American Revolution to a failed first attempt at democracy, how did the U.S. Constitution come to be? Let’s find out about the backstory to American democracy.This lesson features text and video instruction, a diagram analysis, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 2f
GOVT. 4a, c
2-2 The Six Principles of the ConstitutionHow can we have a strong government that has definite limits? Here we will analyze the concept of limited government, and the principles that work to limit the power of the national government.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 4c
GOVT. 7b
GOVT. 10e
GOVT. 13a – c
2-3 The Seven ArticlesThe U.S. Constitution established a form of government that has been a model for other nations to follow since the birth of the United States. How did the framers meet the needs of the people through a lasting plan of government?This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 4a-e
GOVT. 6e
2-4 The Twenty-Seven AmendmentsThe framers of the Constitution realized that what they created might need some adjustments. In this lesson, we will see the formal changes America has made to the original plan.This lesson features text and video instruction, a diagram skills section, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 4e
GOVT. 5a – d
GOVT. 6e
2-5 Federalism and the Division of PowerHow can we balance the interests of the nation with the interests of the individual states? In this lesson, federalism helps to balance the power to meet the needs of the people.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 4c
GOVT. 5a – d
GOVT. 9f
2-6 Interstate CooperationStates must respect one another’s laws, acts, and records. But what other ways must states cooperate, and what happens when they don’t? This lesson will explain.This lesson features text and video instruction, an anticipatory exercise, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 4c
GOVT. 5a, b, d
Unit AssessmentVocabulary Review Activities
20 Multiple Choice Questions
Free Response Writing
GOVT. 1e, 1j
ENGLISH WRITING
12.6.a,b,c,e,f
lred
UNIT 3: POLITICS AND ELECTIONSlblue
3-1 Political Parties and What They DoWe cannot live in America without being painfully aware of political parties. But other than elections, what functions do they serve? Here we will find out.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 6a
3-2 America’s Two-Party SystemMost Americans can recognize the two dominant political parties as Democrats and Republicans. This lesson looks at why we have these two parties, and how they compare.This lesson features text and video instruction, a venn diagram activity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 6a, d
GOVT. 9b
3-3 The Mass Media and Public OpinionThe mass media and public opinion are absolutely essential to politicians and elected officials, but we need to analyze how these work to influence politics and government in this lesson.This lesson features text and video instruction, an image analysis, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 1a, c, d
GOVT. 6c
3-4 Interest GroupsAre they special interest groups, pressure groups, or something else? Let’s look at how these organizations work to influence public policy.This lesson features text and video instruction, a political cartoon interpretation, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 1g
GOVT. 6b, c
GOVT. 7c
GOVT. 8d, e
3-5 The Election ProcessNominations, campaigns, money, and election day; how do these play out in our historic democratic process? This lesson will explain.This lesson features text and video instruction, a voter registration opportunity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 6a, b, d, f
Unit AssessmentVocabulary Review Activities
20 Multiple Choice Questions
Free Response Writing
GOVT. 1e, 1j
ENGLISH WRITING
12.6.a,b,c,e,f
lred
UNIT 4: THE NATIONAL LEGISLATURElblue
4-1 Congress: A Bicameral LegislatureWe have a House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate, but how do these two houses compare? This lesson will help answer that question!This lesson features text and video instruction, a bicameralism matching game, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 6d
GOVT. 7a
4-2 The Organization of CongressEach house of Congress has its own leadership and system to help make the lawmaking process more efficient. This lesson traces how the organization of each house fulfills its needs.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 7a
4-3 The Powers of CongressSo, you think the President has power? Let’s see how much power Congress has; this lesson may surprise you!This lesson features text and video instruction, a diagram skills activity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 7a, b
GOVT. 12a
4-4 How a Bill Becomes a LawIn this lesson we take a look at the long, hard journey an idea must survive before it can become a law.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 7a
GOVT. 9c, e
Unit AssessmentVocabulary Review Activities
20 Multiple Choice Questions
Free Response Writing
GOVT. 1e, 1j
ENGLISH WRITING
12.6.a,b,c,e,f
lred
UNIT 5: THE NATIONAL EXECUTIVElblue
5-1 Electing the PresidentHow is it possible for a person to be elected President without winning the popular vote? This lesson will explain.This lesson features text and video instruction, an Electoral College Map activity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 7a
5-2 Powers of the PresidentThe powers of the President have grown significantly since the writing of the Constitution. So what powers does this office currently hold?This lesson features text and video instruction, a chart activity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 7a, b
GOVT. 12a
5-3 Presidential Roles and SuccessionSo what does the president actually do? What does the Vice-President do? And who is next up if they both die? This lesson will answer these important questions.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 7a
5-4 The Federal BureaucracyThe federal government is the largest single employer in the United States. This lesson will help explain the scope and size of the U.S. Government.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 9e
GOVT. 12a
5-5 The President and the Budget ProcessHow can the budget process lead to a government shutdown!?! This lesson will help explain why this sometimes happens.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 13d
GOVT. 15d
Unit AssessmentVocabulary Review Activities
20 Multiple Choice Questions
Free Response Writing
GOVT. 1e, 1j
ENGLISH WRITING
12.6.a,b,c,e,f
lred
UNIT 6: THE FEDERAL COURTSlblue
6-1 Powers of the Federal CourtsMost Americans are familiar with what courts do, but how can we explain their power? This lesson will show how judges are the referees in society, and in the government.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 7a, b
GOVT. 10a, e
6-2 The Organization of the Federal Court System“I will take my case all the way to the Supreme Court!” Well, that’s a lot harder than you might think – this lesson explains.This lesson features text and video instruction, a diagram skills activity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 7a
GOVT. 10c
6-3 The Supreme Court at WorkNine justices make have the final say on all legal matters, but how does the Supreme Court work? We find out in this lesson.This lesson features text and video instruction, a bar graph activity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 7a
GOVT. 10b – e
GOVT. 11c
6-4 The Trial ProcessFrom the arraignment to the verdict, this lesson traces the process that secures a fair trial for Americans.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 10a
GOVT. 11b
Unit AssessmentVocabulary Review Activities
20 Multiple Choice Questions
Free Response Writing
GOVT. 1e, 1j
ENGLISH WRITING
12.6.a,b,c,e,f
lred
UNIT 7: DOMESTIC POLICYlblue
7-1 Domestic Policy; Costs and BenefitsThe Preamble to the Constitution charges the government with helping to make the lives of Americans better. How does this work through domestic policies? This lesson looks at the costs and benefits.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 9a, c
GOVT. 13d
GOVT. 15a, e
7-2 Raising Revenue to Pay for PoliciesTaxes, taxes, taxes – but even that is not always enough to pay for America’s budget. How does the government make ends meet? Here we will find out.This lesson features text and video instruction, a pie chart skills activity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 1a, b
GOVT. 13d
GOVT. 15c
7-3 The Budget and Federal SpendingWe have already learned about the process, but this lesson will look at the different expenses that must be met. Can we cut the budget enough to pay off the public debt?This lesson features text and video instruction, a pie chart skills activity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 1a, b
GOVT. 13d
GOVT. 14a – c
GOVT. 15a, d. e
7-4 Politics of Domestic PolicyWhat do the Democrats and Republicans want from domestic policy? This lesson provides some insights to the debate.This lesson features text and video instruction, a political image interpretation activity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 1f
GOVT. 13d
GOVT. 14a – c
GOVT. 15a, b, d – f
Unit AssessmentVocabulary Review Activities
20 Multiple Choice Questions
Free Response Writing
GOVT. 1e, 1j
ENGLISH WRITING
12.6.a,b,c,e,f
lred
UNIT 8: FOREIGN POLICYlblue
8-1 Basic Goals of Foreign PolicyForeign policy consists of the ways the government deals with other countries politically, economically, and militaristically. But what does the U.S. try to gain?This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 12a
GOVT. 14b
8-2 Carrying Out Foreign PolicyThe United States may have a reputation of being quick-on-the-trigger, and eager to use force to solve problems. Is this deserved? Let’s look at the various ways the U.S. attempts to meet its policy goals.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 12a – c
8-3 Foreign Policy; Costs and BenefitsSome say it is up to America to lead the world, and others wish the U.S. would back off and mind its own business. This lesson looks at the costs and benefits of global involvement.This lesson features text and video instruction, a graph analysis activity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 1a – c
GOVT. 12a, b
8-4 Key Players in Foreign PolicyThe President carries the primary responsibility of making and carrying out foreign policy, but he cannot do it by himself. Who helps the President fulfill his obligations as Chief Diplomat?This lesson features text and video instruction, a political cartoon analysis activity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 12a
Unit AssessmentVocabulary Review Activities
20 Multiple Choice Questions
Free Response Writing
GOVT. 1e, 1j
ENGLISH WRITING
12.6.a,b,c,e,f
lred
UNIT 9: CIVIL LIBERTIES AND CIVIL RIGHTSlblue
9-1 Five Freedoms of the First AmendmentFreedom of religion, speech, press, peaceful assembly and to petition the government are the bedrock of American liberty. Let’s look at why these are so essential to the people.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 11a, d
9-2 Security of the Person; Amendments 2, 3 & 4A regular theme in this course has been limiting the power of the national government. This lesson examines how the individual is protected – and how the individual can protect himself.This lesson features text and video instruction, a chart skills activity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 11a
9-3 Rights of the Accused; Amendment 5“I take the Fifth!” Well, what does that really mean, and do we have any other protections when accused? This lesson will help you understand those rights.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 11a, b
9-4 Fair Trials and Punishments; Amendments 6, 7 & 8Trials are used as a way to deprive a person of life, liberty, or property. There must be specific limitations on the procedure; these trials must be fair to all the people charged with a crime. This lesson examines the elements of fair trials and fair punishments.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 11a, b
9-5 Extending Our Rights; Amendments 9, 10 & 14Why do we have the right to privacy? Why do women have the right to abortions? Why must states recognize same-sex marriages? This lesson explains how we have many rights beyond those specifically named in the Bill of Rights!This lesson features text and video instruction, a working with tables activity, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 11a – c
9-6 Civil RightsHow are Civil Rights different from Civil Liberties? Why are Civil Rights laws necessary? This lesson will look at the struggle, success, and future needs of America’s ongoing Civil Rights Movement.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 11e
Unit AssessmentVocabulary Review Activities
20 Multiple Choice Questions
Free Response Writing
GOVT. 1e, 1j
ENGLISH WRITING
12.6.a,b,c,e,f
lred
UNIT 10: STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTlblue
10-1 State Constitutions and Government StructureYou didn’t think we were done yet, did you? Now let’s look at how state governments are organized to meet the needs of the people in the state.This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 8a
GOVT. 9e
10-2 State Policies; Taxing and SpendingState governments need to pay for policies, and that means more taxes. What taxes do we pay to the states, and how do they use them?This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 9d, e
GOVT. 13d
GOVT. 14c
GOVT. 15c
10-3 Local GovernmentLocal governments are found in cities and towns, and meet the immediate needs of the people. How do they do this, and how can we make a difference by exercising civic virtue?This lesson features text and video instruction, a vocabulary matching section, and content comprehension check of 5 multiple choice questions.GOVT. 1f – i
GOVT. 7c
GOVT. 8b – e
GOVT. 9d, f, g
GOVT. 15c
GOVT. 16a – j
Unit AssessmentVocabulary Review Activities
20 Multiple Choice Questions
Free Response Writing
GOVT. 1e, 1j
ENGLISH WRITING
12.6.a,b,c,e,f
lred

Algebra I

Alignment already in place. Documentation under construction.
Alignment already in place. Documentation under construction.

Biology

VA SOL STRAND – BIOLOGY
CHALLENGEU LESSONS
red
BIO.1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of science reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning/conducting investigations in whichlred
a) observations of living organisms are recorded in the lab and in the field;1-2 Predictions/Observations/Inferences
b) hypotheses are formulated based on direct observations and information from scientific literature;1-2 Predictions/Observations/Inferences
c) variables are defined and investigations are designed to test hypotheses;1-4 Scientific Method – The Process
d) graphing and arithmetic calculations are used as tools in data analysis;1-6 Graphing
e) conclusions are formed based on recorded quantitative and qualitative data;1-3 Data Qualitaive vs. Quantitative
f) sources of error inherent in experimental design are identified and discussed;1-5 Desigining Your Experiment
g) validity of data is determined;1-5 Designing Your Experiment
h) chemicals and equipment are used in a safe manner;1-8 Safety; 1-9 Equipment
i) appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware is used for gathering and analyzing data, communicating
results, modeling concepts, and simulating experimental conditions;
1-6 Graphing
j) research utilizes scientific literature;1-4 Scientific Method – The Process
k) differentiation is made between a scientific hypothesis, theory, and law;1-7 Hypotheses/Law/Theories
l) alternative scientific explanations and models are recognized and analyzed; and 1-4 Scientific Method – The Process
m) current applications of biological processess are used.1-7 Hypotheses/Law/Theories
BIO.2 The student will investigate and understand the chemical and biochemical principles essential for life. Key concepts includelred
a) water chemistry and its impact on life processes;2-1 – Water; 2-2 – The Water Molecule; 2-3 – Properties of Water Part I; 2-4 -Properties of Water Part II; 2-5 – pH scale – Acids & Bases
b) the structure and function of macromolecules;2-7 – Macromolecules; 2-8 – Carbohydrates and Lipids; 2-9 – Nucleic Acids and Proteins
c) the nature of enzymes; and2-10 – Enzymes
d) the capture, storage, transformation and flow of energy through the process of photosynthesis and respiration.2-1 – Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration
BIO.3 The student will investigate and understand relationships between cell structure and function. Key concepts includelred
a) evidence supporting the cell theory;3-1 Cell Theory
b) characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;3-2 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
c) similarities between the activities of the organelles in a single-celled and a whole organism;3-3 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
d) the cell membrane model; and3-5 Cell Membrane Structure
e) the impact of surface area to volume ratio on cell division, material transport, and other life processes.3-11 Surface Area to Volume
BIO.4 The student will investigate and understand life functions of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Key concepts includelred
a) comparison of their metabolic activities;4-1 The 8 Characteristics of Life
b) maintenance of homeostasis;4-1 The 8 Characteristics of Life
c) how the structures and functions vary among and within the Eukarya kingdoms of protists, fungi, plants, and animals, including humans;4-2 The 3 Domains
d) human health issues, human anatomy, and body systems;4-5 Factors Affecting Health
e) how viruses compare with organisms; and4-4 Sanitation
f) evidence supporting the germ theory of infectious disease.4-3 Pasteur's & Koch's Postulates
BIO.5 The student will investigate and understand common mechanisms of inheritance and protein synthesis. Key concepts includelred
a) cell growth and division;5-1 The Cell Cycle
b) gamete formation;5-2 Meiosis
c) cell specialization;5-3 Compare Mitosis and Meiosis
d) prediction of inheritance of traits based on the Mendelian laws of heredity;5-5 Mendel Introduction; 5-6 Punnett Square How To; 5-7 Non-Mendelian Inheritance
e) historical development of the structural model of DNA;5-8 History of DNA
f) genetic variation;5-2 Meiosis;
g) the structure, function, and replication of nucleic acids;2-9 Nucleic Acids and Proteins;
h) events involved in the construction of proteins;5-11 Protein Synthesis
i) use, limitations, and misuse of genetic information; and5-12 DNA Technology
j) exploration of the impact of DNA technologies.5-12 DNA Technology
BIO.6 The student will investigate and understand bases for modern classification systems. Key concepts includelred
a) structural similarities among organisms;6-3 Relationships Past and Present
b) fossil record interpretation;6-4 Comare Biochemistry- DNA Sequence
c) comparison of developmental stages in different organisms;6-3 Relationships Past and Present
d) examination of biochemical similarities and differences among organisms; and6-4 Compare Biochemistry- DNA Sequence
e) systems of classification that are adaptable to new scientific discoveries.6-5 Cladograms & Phylogenic Trees
BIO.7 The student will investigate and understand how populations change through time. Key concepts includelred
a) evidence found in fossil records;6-4 Compare Biochemistry – DNA sequence;
b) how genetic variation, reproductive strategies, and environmental pressures impact the survival of populations;7-6 Environmental Pressures
c) how natural selection leads to adaptations;7-2 Charles Darwin
d) emergence of new species; and7-5 Speciation
e) scientific evidence and explanations for biological evolution.7-4 Evidence of Evolution
BIO.8 The student will investigate and understand dynamic equilibria within populations, communities, and ecosystems. Key concepts includelred
a) interactions within and among populations including carrying capacities, limiting factors, and growth curves;8-3 Population Growth Curves
b) nutrient cycling with energy flow through ecosystems;8-5 Cycles
c) succession patterns in ecosystems;8-7 Succession
d) the effects of natural events and human activities on ecosystems; and8-6 Chesapeake Bay Watershed
e) analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.8-6 Chesapeake Bay Watershed
LESSON TITLE
CONTENT OVERVIEW
ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
SOL ALIGNMENT
red
UNIT 1- Scientific Method and Investigationslred
Lesson 1-1 What Is Biology?Introduction to biology, Scientific method-process, Experimental design, GraphingThis lesson features text and video instruction, and a content comprehension check of multiple-choice questions.BIO.1a
Lesson 1-2 Prediction/Observations/InferencesMake clear distinctions between predictions, observations, and inferencesThis lesson features text, video, a content comprehension check of 2 multiple-choice questions, and a 10 question mutiple-choice Brainbooster.BIO.1a
1-3 Data – Qualitative vs. QuantitativeIdentifying the differences between qualitative and quantitative date This lesson features text, video, picture animation, and a comprehensive content check of multiple-choice questions.BIO.1b
1-4 Scientific Method – The ProcessFormulate hypotheses based on preliminary observations. Identify the independent variable (IV) and the values of the IV that will be used in an experiment. Select dependent variables, and identify variables that must be held constant. Establish controls. Read the text; watch the video, and answer MC question.BIO.1a-g
1-5 Design Your ExperimentExperimental designRead the text; watch the video, and answer MC question.BIO.1a-g
1-6 GraphingGraphing practice. Plot data graphically, show independent and dependent variables. Describe trends from the data where appropriate.Watch the video; read the text, and answer 2 multiple-choice questions.BIO.1d
1-7 Hypothesis, Laws, TheoriesCompare and contrast hypotheses, laws, and theories.This lesson features text, video, and a content comprehensive check of multiple-choice questions.BIO.1k
1-8 SafetyChemical and equipment useRead the text, and answer 3 MC questions.BIO.1h
1-9 EquipmentIdentify scientific equipment use in the science classroom.Read the text, and answer 3 MC questions. Match the explanation/picture with the correct equipment.BIO.1h
Unit 1 Summative AssessmentComplete comprehensive content check of 24 multiple-choice questions.BIO.1a-m
Unit 2 – Chemical and Biological Propertieslred
2-1 – WaterStates of matter of water, Explain the importance of the chemical and physical properties of water that make it vital to life.Watch the video. Read and answer MC questions.BIO.2a
2-2 – The Water MoleculeWater structure, States of matter of waterWatch the video. Read and answer MC questions.BIO.2a
2-3 – Properties of Water Part ICohesion, Surface tension, Adhesion, & Capillary actionWatch the video. Read and answer MC questions.BIO.2a
2-4 – Properties of Water Part IISpecific heat, High heat of vaporization, & Universal solventWatch the video. Read and answer MC questions.BIO.2a
2-5 – pH scales – Acids and BasesThe pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. The ph of pure water is 7. Substances added to water can lower or raise the pH. A solution with a ph below 7 is acidic. A solution with a pH above 7 is basic. Watch the video. Read and answer MC question.BIO.2a
2-6 – HomeostasisOrgan systems function and interact to maintain a stable internal
environment that can resist disturbance from within or without
(homeostasis). Example of homeostasis in organisms.
Watch the video. Read and answer MC question.BIO.4b
2-7 – MacromoleculesExpain the role and function of the four major categories of macromolecules (lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids).Watch the video. Read and answer MC question.BIO. 2b
2-8 – Carbohydrates and LipidsThe primary functions of carbohydrate macromolecules are to provide
and store energy and the functions of lipid macromolecules are to insulate, store
energy, and make up cell membranes.
Watch the video. Read and answer MC question.Bio.2b
2-9 – Nucleic Acids and ProteinsProteins are macromolecules made by linking together amino acid monomers.
Protein molecules that are assembled in cells carry out most of the cells’
work.
Watch the video. Read and answer MC question.BIO.2b
2-10 – EnzymesMost life processes are a series of chemical reactions influenced by
environmental and genetic factors. The chemical reactions that occur
inside cells are directly controlled by a large set of protein molecules
called enzymes, whose functions depend on their specific shapes. Each
enzyme has a definite three-dimensional shape that allows it to
recognize and bind with its substrate. In living cells, enzymes control
the rate of metabolic reaction by acting as catalysts.
Watch the video. Read and answer MC question.BIO.2c
2-11 – Photosynthesis and Cellular RespirationRecognize the equations for photosynthesis and respiration, and
identify the reactants and products.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.2d
Unit 2 Summative AssessmentComplete comprehensive content check of 25 multiple-choice questions.BIO.2a-d
Unit 3 Cell Structure and Functionlred
3-1 Cell TheoryDescribe the key events leading to the development of the cell theory.Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.3a
3-2 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic CellsCompare and contrast characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic
cells.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.3b
3-3 Eukaryotic Cell StructureCompare and contrast the activities of an organelle in a single-celled and
a whole organism.
Identify the essential cell structures (organelles) and their functions.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.3c
3-4 Plant Cells vs. Animal CellsCellular differences between plant and animal cells include the presence
of a cell wall that gives the plant cell a defined shape, the presence of
chloroplast, and the number of vacuoles.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.3c
Lesson 3-5 Cell Membrane StructureThe fluid-mosaic model of a membrane emphasizes the arrangement and
function of a bilayer of phospholipids, transport proteins, and
cholesterol.
Homeostasis of a cell is maintained by the plasma membrane comprised
of a variety of organic molecules. The membrane controls the
movement of material in and out of the cell, communication between
cells, and the recognition of cells to facilitate multiple metabolic
functions.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.3d
Lesson 3-6 Concentration GradientWatch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.3e
Lesson 3-7 Cell Transport: Diffusion and OsmosisDiffusion occurs in cells when substances (oxygen, carbon dioxide,
salts, sugars, amino acids) that are dissolved in water move from an area.Osmosis refers to the movement of water molecules through a semipermeable
membrane from an area of greater water concentration or
pressure (lower solute concentration) to an area of lesser water
concentration or pressure (higher solute concentration).

Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.3e
Lesson 3-8 Cell Transport: Facilitated Transport and Active TransportFacilitated diffusion occurs in cells when larger substances are moved
from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
with the assistance of a carrier protein without the use of energy.
Active transport refers to the movement of solid or liquid particles into
and out of a cell with an input of energy.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.3e
Lesson 3-9 Endocytosis, Exocytosis, and PinocytosisThree types of active transportWatch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.3e
Lesson 3-10 TonicityDescribe the relationship between a cell’s external solute
concentration and its effect on the cell’s internal solute concentration.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.3e
Lesson 3-11 Surface Area to VolumeAs cells increase in size, surface area to volume ratios decrease, making
cells unable to obtain nutrients or remove wastes. To reduce the effects
of this, cells divide to stay small or change shape to increase surface
area or reduce volume.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.3e
Unit 3 AssessmentComplete comprehensive content check of 15 multiple-choice questions.BIO.3a-e
Unit 4 Life Functionslred
Lesson 4-1 The 8 Characteristics of LifeThe organisms that live on earth today share many structural and
metabolic features, including cellular organization, common molecular
mechanisms for energy transformation, utilization and maintenance of
homeostasis, common genetic code, coordinating body functions, reproducing and mechanisms for the
transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.4b BIO.5e
Lesson 4-2 The DomainsCategorize and compare the Eukarya kingdoms based on cell structure,
locomotion, reproduction, response to the environment and
metabolism.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.4c
Lesson 4-3 Pasteur's and Koch's PostulatesThroughout history, people have created explanations for disease. The
introduction of the germ theory led to the understanding that many
diseases are caused by microorganisms. Changes in health practices
have resulted from the acceptance of the germ theory of disease. Describe how Pasteur’s and Koch’s experimentation and hypotheses
led to an understanding of the presence of microorganisms and their
relationship to diseases.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.4f
Lesson 4-4 SanitationModern health practices emphasize sanitation, the safe handling of food
and water, aseptic techniques to keep germs out of the body, and the
development of vaccinations and other chemicals and processes to
destroy microorganisms.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.4e-d
Lesson 4-5 Factors Affecting HealthIdentify the main factors that affect human health.Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.4d
Unit 4 AssessmentComplete comprehensive content check of 15 multiple-choice questions.BIO.4a-d
Mid-Term AssessmentComplete comprehensive content check of 40 multiple-choice questions.BIO.1a-m BIO.2a-d BIO.3a-e BIO.4a-f
Unit 5 Mechanism of Inheritance an Protein Synthesislred
Lesson 5-1 The Cell CycleAll living cells come from other living cells. A typical cell goes through
a process of growth, development, and reproduction called the cell cycle.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises. Match the explanation with the correct picture.BIO.5a
Lesson 5-2 MeiosisMany organisms are capable of combining genetic information from
two parents to produce offspring. Sex cells are produced through
meiosis. This allows sexually reproducing organisms to produce
genetically differing offspring, and maintain their number of
chromosomes. Meiosis occurs in sexual reproduction when a diploid
germ cell produces four haploid daughter cells that can mature to
become gametes (sperm or egg).
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.5b
Lesson 5-3 Compare Mitosis and MeiosisCompare and contrast the process of mitosis and meiosis, and
determine under which conditions each process will occur.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.5b
Lesson 5-4 Genetic DiversityGenetically diverse populations are more likely to survive changing
environments. Recombination and mutation provide for genetic
diversity. Some new gene combinations have little effect, some can
produce organisms that are better suited to their environments, and
others can be harmful.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.5f
Lesson 5-5 Mendel IntroductionMendel’s laws of heredity are based on his mathematical analysis of
observations of patterns of inheritance of traits.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.5d
Lesson 5-6 Punnett Square How toGeneticists apply
mathematical principles of probability to Mendel’s laws of heredity in
order to predict the results of simple genetic crosses.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.5d
Lesson 5-7 Non-Mendelian InheritanceGenotype describes the genetic make-up of an organism, and phenotype
describes the organism’s appearance based on its genes. Homozygous
individuals have two identical alleles for a particular trait, while
heterozygous individuals have contrasting alleles. When one allele
masks the effect of another, that allele is called dominant and the other
recessive. When an intermediate phenotype occurs and no allele
dominates, incomplete dominance results. Many other patterns of
inheritance exist including multiple alleles, polygenic inheritance, and
sex-linked inheritance.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.5d
Lesson 5-8 History of DNAOnce DNA was shown to be the genetic material, a race among
scientists took place to work out its structure. Studies of the amounts of
each DNA base in different organisms led to the concept of
complementary base-paring. Interpretations of X-ray photographs of
DNA were used to describe the shape and dimensions of the molecule.
An analysis of this and other available data led to a structural model for
the DNA double helix.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the quiz.BIO.5e
Lesson 5-9 Genes and MutationsInserting, deleting, or substituting DNA bases can alter genes. An
altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it,
causing an altered phenotype. An altered phenotype may be neutral,
beneficial, or harmful. Sometimes entire chromosomes can be added
or deleted, resulting in a genetic disorder. These abnormalities may be
diagnosed using a karyotype.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.5f
Lesson 5-10 DNA ReplicationDuring DNA replication, enzymes unwind and unzip the double helix,
and each strand serves as a template for building a new DNA molecule. Free nucleotides bond to the template (A-T and C-G) forming a
complementary strand. The final product of replication is two identical
DNA molecules.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.5g
Lesson 5-11 Protein SynthesisDNA stores the information for directing the construction of proteins
within a cell. These proteins determine the phenotype of an organism.
The genetic information encoded in DNA molecules provides
instructions for assembling protein molecules. The code is virtually the
same for all life forms.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.5h
Lesson 5-12 DNA TechnologyDNA technologies allow scientists to identify, study, and modify genes.
Forensic identification is an example of the application of DNA
technology. Genetic engineering techniques are used in a variety of industries, in
agriculture, in basic research, and in medicine.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.5j
Unit 5 Summative AssessmentComplete comprehensive content check of 22 multiple-choice questions.BIO.5a-j
Unit 6 Modern Classification Systemslred
Lesson 6-1 History of ClassificationBiological classifications are based on how organisms are related.
Organisms are classified into a hierarchy of groups and subgroups based
on similarities that reflect their relationships over a period of time. Binomial nomenclature is a standard way of identifying a species with a
scientific two-word name. The first word is the genus name and the
second the species name. Species is the basic unit of classification. A
species is defined as a group of organisms that has the ability to
interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.6a-d
Lesson 6-2 Dichotomous KeyA dichotomous key is a classification tool used to identify and organize
organisms using defining characteristics.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.6a
Lesson 6-3 Relationships – Past and Present Part I Lesson 6-4 Relationships – Past and Present Part IIHomologous structure, embyology, and biochemical similarities all suggest evolutionary relationships.Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.6a-d
Lesson 6-5 Compare Biochemistry – DNA SequenceInformation about relationships among living organisms and those that
inhabited earth in the past is gained by comparing biochemistry and
developmental stages of organisms and by examining and interpreting
the fossil record. This information is continually being gathered and
used to modify and clarify existing classification systems.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.6d
Lessson 6-6 Cladogram and Phylogenic TreesVisual diagrams that show evolutionary relatedness (common ancestry) and relationshipsWatch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.6a
Unit 6 Summative AssessmentComplete comprehensive content check of 15 multiple-choice questions.BIO.6a-d
Unit 7 Mechanisms of Change in Populationslred
Lesson 7-1 Charles DarwinThrough his observations, including those made in the Galapagos
Islands, Charles Darwin formulated a theory of how species change over
time, called natural selection. Natural selection is a process by which
organisms with traits well suited to an environment survive and
reproduce at a greater rate than organisms less suited to that
environment, and is governed by the principles of genetics.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.7b-c
Lesson 7-2 Influencing DarwinScientists that influenced Charles Darwin: Jean Baptiste Lamarck, Charles Lyell, and Thomas MalthusWatch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.7c
Lesson 7-3 Theory of EvolutionRecognize that adaptations may occur in populations of organisms
over a period of time. Understand the impact of reproductive strategies and rates on a
population’s survival. Determine the relative age of a fossil given information about its
position in the rock and absolute dating by radioactive decay. Differentiate between relative and absolute dating based on fossils in
biological evolution.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.7a-e
Lesson 7-4 Evidence of EvolutionFossils records, biochemistry, and embyology all suggest a commom ancestor.Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.7a BIO.7e BIO.6b-c
Lesson 7-5 SpeciationThe change in frequency of a gene in a given population leads to a change favoring maintenance of that gene within a population and, if so, may result in the emergence of a new species.Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.7d
Lesson 7-6 Environmental PressuresAdaptations sometimes arise abruptly in response to strong
environmental selective pressures, for example, the development of
antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations, morphological changes in
the peppered moth population, and the development of pesticide
resistance in insect populations.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.7b
Lesson 7-7 Punctuated EquilibriumCompare and contrast punctuated equilibrium with gradual change
over time.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.7b
Unit 7 Summative AssessmentComplete comprehensive content check of 15 multiple-choice questions.BIO.7a-e
Unit 8 Populations, Communities, and Ecosystemslred
Lesson 8-1 Food Chains/Food WebsInterpret how the flow of energy occurs between trophic levels in all
ecosystems in each of the following:
– food chain
– food web
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.8b
Lesson 8-2 Pyramids – Energy/Biomass/NumbersInterpret how the flow of energy occurs between trophic levels in all
ecosystems in each of the following:
– pyramid of energy
– pyramid of biomass
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.8b
Lesson 8-3 Population Growth CurvesGraph and interpret a population growth curve, and identify the
carrying capacity of the populations.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.8a
Lesson 8-4 Symbiosis – Mutualism, Parasitism, and CommensalismSymbiosis is a close and permanent relationship between organisms of
two different species. Examples include mutualism, commensalism, and
parasitism.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.8b
Lesson 8-5 CyclesAn ecosystem consists of all the interacting species and the abiotic
environment in a given geographic area. All matter including essential
nutrients cycle through an ecosystem. The most common examples of
such matter and nutrients include carbon, nitrogen, and water.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.8b
Lesson 8-6 Chesapeake Bay WatershedRecognize that the Chesapeake Bay watershed includes the majority of
Virginia and human activities play an important role in its health.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.8d BIO.8e
Lesson 8-7 SucessionEcological succession is a predictable change in the sequence of species
that establish in a particular area over time.
A climax community occurs when succession slows down and a stable
community is established.
Watch the video; answer multiple-choice questions, and complete the exercises.BIO.8d BIO.8e
Unit 8 Summative AssessmentComplete comprehensive content check of 20 multiple-choice questions.BIO.8a-e
Second Mid-Term AssessmentComplete comprehensive content check of 40 multiple-choice questions.BIO. 5a-j BIO. 6a-e BIO. 7a-e BIO. 8a-e lred
Final Test – End of Course AssessmentComplete comprehensive content check of 50 multiple-choice questions.BIO. 1a-m BIO. 2a-d BIO. 3a-e BIO. 4a-f BIO. 5a-j BIO. 6a-e BIO. 7a-e BIO. 8a-e lred